Key research areas: Inquiry-based teaching practices in mathematics education; Statistical reasoning and informal inference;
Dr Katie Makar is an associate professor in mathematics education at the University of Queensland. She is known internationally for her work on informal inference and statistical reasoning of primary school children and is co-Director of the International Collaboration for Research on Statistical Reasoning, Thinking and Literacy. She has won multiple awards for her class-room based research and led 4 nationally funded research projects that focused on teaching of mathematics and statistics through inquiry. Her longitudinal research on teachers’ adoption of inquiry-based pedagogies in mathematics followed teachers over several years as they developed confidence over time. Katie has led consulting projects for Education Queensland, the Australian Academy of Science and Amplify Learning (New York) that developed inquiry-based curriculum materials in mathematics and statistics for primary and middle years. A hallmark of her work is her close collaboration with several teachers, who have presented with her around the world. Previously, she taught secondary mathematics for fifteen years in the US and Asia before finishing her PhD in 2004.
In inquiry-based learning, Dr Makar's research has been used as a model in the development of inquiry-based lessons for Queensland state schools and the creation of innovative statistics curriculum resources in the USA. Her work on informal statistical inference and inferential reasoning has had a major impact on the direction of international research on statistical reasoning at the school level.
Journal Article: Statistical modelling and repeatable structures: purpose, process and prediction
Makar, Katie and Allmond, Sue (2018) Statistical modelling and repeatable structures: purpose, process and prediction. ZDM, . doi:10.1007/s11858-018-0956-y
Book Chapter: Learning about statistical inference
Makar, Katie and Rubin, Andee (2018). Learning about statistical inference. In Dani Ben-Zvi , Katie Makar and Joan Garfield (Ed.), International handbook of research in statistics education (pp. 261-294) Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-66195-7_8
Book Chapter: Theorising links between context and structure to introduce powerful statistical ideas in the early years
Makar, Katie (2018). Theorising links between context and structure to introduce powerful statistical ideas in the early years. In Early mathematics learning and development (pp. 3-20) Singapore: Springer Singapore. doi:10.1007/978-981-13-1044-7_1
Journal Article: Developing young children's emergent inferential practices in statistics
Makar, Katie (2016) Developing young children's emergent inferential practices in statistics. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 18 1: 1-24. doi:10.1080/10986065.2016.1107820
Journal Article: Scaffolding norms of argumentation-based inquiry in a primary mathematics classroom
Makar, Katie, Bakkar, Arthur and Ben-Zvi, Dani (2015) Scaffolding norms of argumentation-based inquiry in a primary mathematics classroom. ZDM, 47 7: 1107-1120. doi:10.1007/s11858-015-0732-1
Journal Article: Young children's explorations of average through informal inferential reasoning
Makar, Katie (2014) Young children's explorations of average through informal inferential reasoning. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 86 1: 61-78. doi:10.1007/s10649-013-9526-y
Book Chapter: Blurring the boundaries: the transformative nature of research participation
Makar, Katie and O'Brien, Mia (2013). Blurring the boundaries: the transformative nature of research participation. In Warren Midgley, Patrick Alan Danaher and Margaret Baguley (Ed.), The Role of Participants in Education Research: Ethics, Epistemologies, and Methods (pp. 110-125) New York, NY, United States: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9780203078389
Journal Article: Predict! Teaching statistics using informal statistical inference
Makar, Katie (2013) Predict! Teaching statistics using informal statistical inference. Australian Mathematics Teacher, 69 4: 34-40.
Book Chapter: Technology for enhancing statistical reasoning at the school level
Biehler, Rolph, Ben-Zvi, Dani, Bakker, Arthur and Makar, Katie (2013). Technology for enhancing statistical reasoning at the school level. In M. A. (Ken) Clement, Alan J. Bishop, Christine Keitel, Jeremy Kilpatrick and Frederick K. S. Leung (Ed.), Third International Handbook of Mathematics Education (pp. 643-689) New York, NY, United States: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-4684-2_21
Journal Article: Students' emergent articulations of uncertainty while making informal statistical inferences
Ben-Zvi, Dani, Aridor, Keren, Makar, Katie and Bakkar, Arthur (2012) Students' emergent articulations of uncertainty while making informal statistical inferences. ZDM: The International Journal on Mathematics Education, 44 7: 913-925. doi:10.1007/s11858-012-0420-3
Book Chapter: The pedagogy of mathematics inquiry
Makar, Katie (2012). The pedagogy of mathematics inquiry. In Robyn M. Gillies (Ed.), Pedagogy: new developments in the learning sciences (pp. 371-397) New York, United States: Nova Science Publishers.
Book Chapter: Teaching teachers to teach statistical investigations
Makar, Katie and Fielding-Wells, Jill (2011). Teaching teachers to teach statistical investigations. In Carmen Batanero, Gail Burrill and Chris Reading (Ed.), Teaching statistics in school mathematics: Challenges for teaching and teacher education. A Joint ICMI/IASE Study: The 18th ICMI Study (pp. 347-358) Dordrech, Netherlands: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-1131-0_33
Journal Article: The reasoning behind informal statistical inference
Makar, Katie, Bakker, Arthur and Ben-Zvi, Dani (2011) The reasoning behind informal statistical inference. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 13 1-2: 152-173. doi:10.1080/10986065.2011.538301
Book: Thinking through mathematics: Engaging students with inquiry-based learning. Book 3, Ages 10-13
Allmond, Sue, Wells, Jill and Makar, Katie Thinking through mathematics: Engaging students with inquiry-based learning. Book 3, Ages 10-13. Carlton South, Vic., Australia: Education Services Australia, 2010.
Journal Article: A framework for thinking about informal statistical inference
Makar, Katie and Rubin, Andee (2009) A framework for thinking about informal statistical inference. Statistics Education Research Journal, 8 1: 82-105.
Conference Publication: A model of learning to teach statistical inquiry
Makar, Katie (2008). A model of learning to teach statistical inquiry. In: Batanero, C., Burrill, G., Reading, C. and Rossman, A, Proceedings of the ICMI Study 18 Conference and IASE 2008 Round Table Conference. Joint ICMI/IASE Study Statistics in School Mathematics. Challenges for Teaching and Teacher Education, Monterrey, Mexico, (1-6). 30 June - 4 July 2008.
Journal Article: Connection levers: Supports for building teachers’ confidence and commitment to teach mathematics and statistics through inquiry
Makar, K. (2007) Connection levers: Supports for building teachers’ confidence and commitment to teach mathematics and statistics through inquiry. Mathematics Teacher Education and Development, 8 Special Issue: 48-73.
Book Chapter: Critiquing and improving the use of data from high-stakes tests with the aid of dynamic statistics software
Confrey, Jere and Makar, Katie M. (2005). Critiquing and improving the use of data from high-stakes tests with the aid of dynamic statistics software. In Chris Dede, James P. Honan and Laurence C. Peters (Ed.), Scaling up success: Lessons learned from technology-based educational improvement (pp. 198-226) San Francisco, CA, Australia: Jossey-Bass.
Journal Article: Variation talk: Articulating meaning in statistics
Makar, Katie and Confrey, Jere (2005) Variation talk: Articulating meaning in statistics. Statistics Education Research Journal, 4 1: 27-54.
Developing classroom norms of inquiry based learning in mathematics
(2017–2019) ARC Discovery Projects
(2014–2017) Griffith University
(2014) ARC Discovery Projects
Factors influencing classroom discourse in science class
Doctor Philosophy
Language Games in Primary Mathematics: a qualitative study of how dialogic pedagogy is further enabled by using Wittgenstein's notion of language games to provide rich contexts for talk in primary mathematics
Master Philosophy
One school's perception of implementing and enacting creative thinking in the high school classroom
Doctor Philosophy
Inquiry-based learning in mathematics
My main research focus is on understanding aspects of students and teachers' development of inquiry-based learning in mathematics. I would welcome RHD students with an interest in this area.
NOTE: I am not taking any new students at this time.
Informal Statistical Inference
Most of my international publications and theoretical contributions have been in statistics education, particularly around informal statistical inference. My work focuses on its use with children from prep (age 4-5) through the school years.
NOTE: I am not taking any new students at this time.
Statistical modelling and repeatable structures: purpose, process and prediction
Makar, Katie and Allmond, Sue (2018) Statistical modelling and repeatable structures: purpose, process and prediction. ZDM, . doi:10.1007/s11858-018-0956-y
Learning about statistical inference
Makar, Katie and Rubin, Andee (2018). Learning about statistical inference. In Dani Ben-Zvi , Katie Makar and Joan Garfield (Ed.), International handbook of research in statistics education (pp. 261-294) Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-66195-7_8
Makar, Katie (2018). Theorising links between context and structure to introduce powerful statistical ideas in the early years. In Early mathematics learning and development (pp. 3-20) Singapore: Springer Singapore. doi:10.1007/978-981-13-1044-7_1
Developing young children's emergent inferential practices in statistics
Makar, Katie (2016) Developing young children's emergent inferential practices in statistics. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 18 1: 1-24. doi:10.1080/10986065.2016.1107820
Scaffolding norms of argumentation-based inquiry in a primary mathematics classroom
Makar, Katie, Bakkar, Arthur and Ben-Zvi, Dani (2015) Scaffolding norms of argumentation-based inquiry in a primary mathematics classroom. ZDM, 47 7: 1107-1120. doi:10.1007/s11858-015-0732-1
Young children's explorations of average through informal inferential reasoning
Makar, Katie (2014) Young children's explorations of average through informal inferential reasoning. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 86 1: 61-78. doi:10.1007/s10649-013-9526-y
Blurring the boundaries: the transformative nature of research participation
Makar, Katie and O'Brien, Mia (2013). Blurring the boundaries: the transformative nature of research participation. In Warren Midgley, Patrick Alan Danaher and Margaret Baguley (Ed.), The Role of Participants in Education Research: Ethics, Epistemologies, and Methods (pp. 110-125) New York, NY, United States: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9780203078389
Predict! Teaching statistics using informal statistical inference
Makar, Katie (2013) Predict! Teaching statistics using informal statistical inference. Australian Mathematics Teacher, 69 4: 34-40.
Technology for enhancing statistical reasoning at the school level
Biehler, Rolph, Ben-Zvi, Dani, Bakker, Arthur and Makar, Katie (2013). Technology for enhancing statistical reasoning at the school level. In M. A. (Ken) Clement, Alan J. Bishop, Christine Keitel, Jeremy Kilpatrick and Frederick K. S. Leung (Ed.), Third International Handbook of Mathematics Education (pp. 643-689) New York, NY, United States: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-4684-2_21
Students' emergent articulations of uncertainty while making informal statistical inferences
Ben-Zvi, Dani, Aridor, Keren, Makar, Katie and Bakkar, Arthur (2012) Students' emergent articulations of uncertainty while making informal statistical inferences. ZDM: The International Journal on Mathematics Education, 44 7: 913-925. doi:10.1007/s11858-012-0420-3
The pedagogy of mathematics inquiry
Makar, Katie (2012). The pedagogy of mathematics inquiry. In Robyn M. Gillies (Ed.), Pedagogy: new developments in the learning sciences (pp. 371-397) New York, United States: Nova Science Publishers.
Teaching teachers to teach statistical investigations
Makar, Katie and Fielding-Wells, Jill (2011). Teaching teachers to teach statistical investigations. In Carmen Batanero, Gail Burrill and Chris Reading (Ed.), Teaching statistics in school mathematics: Challenges for teaching and teacher education. A Joint ICMI/IASE Study: The 18th ICMI Study (pp. 347-358) Dordrech, Netherlands: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-1131-0_33
The reasoning behind informal statistical inference
Makar, Katie, Bakker, Arthur and Ben-Zvi, Dani (2011) The reasoning behind informal statistical inference. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 13 1-2: 152-173. doi:10.1080/10986065.2011.538301
Thinking through mathematics: Engaging students with inquiry-based learning. Book 3, Ages 10-13
Allmond, Sue, Wells, Jill and Makar, Katie Thinking through mathematics: Engaging students with inquiry-based learning. Book 3, Ages 10-13. Carlton South, Vic., Australia: Education Services Australia, 2010.
A framework for thinking about informal statistical inference
Makar, Katie and Rubin, Andee (2009) A framework for thinking about informal statistical inference. Statistics Education Research Journal, 8 1: 82-105.
A model of learning to teach statistical inquiry
Makar, Katie (2008). A model of learning to teach statistical inquiry. In: Batanero, C., Burrill, G., Reading, C. and Rossman, A, Proceedings of the ICMI Study 18 Conference and IASE 2008 Round Table Conference. Joint ICMI/IASE Study Statistics in School Mathematics. Challenges for Teaching and Teacher Education, Monterrey, Mexico, (1-6). 30 June - 4 July 2008.
Makar, K. (2007) Connection levers: Supports for building teachers’ confidence and commitment to teach mathematics and statistics through inquiry. Mathematics Teacher Education and Development, 8 Special Issue: 48-73.
Confrey, Jere and Makar, Katie M. (2005). Critiquing and improving the use of data from high-stakes tests with the aid of dynamic statistics software. In Chris Dede, James P. Honan and Laurence C. Peters (Ed.), Scaling up success: Lessons learned from technology-based educational improvement (pp. 198-226) San Francisco, CA, Australia: Jossey-Bass.
Variation talk: Articulating meaning in statistics
Makar, Katie and Confrey, Jere (2005) Variation talk: Articulating meaning in statistics. Statistics Education Research Journal, 4 1: 27-54.
Teaching secondary school mathematics: research and practice for the 21st century
Goos, Merrilyn, Vale, Colleen, Stillman, Gloria and Makar, Katie Teaching secondary school mathematics: research and practice for the 21st century 2nd ed. Sydney, Australia: Allen & Unwin, 2017.
Research in Mathematics Education in Australasia 2012-2015
Research in Mathematics Education in Australasia 2012-2015. Edited by Katie Makar, Shelley Dole, Jana Visnovska, Merrilyn Goos, Anne Bennison and Kym Fry Singapore: Springer, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-981-10-1419-2
Thinking through mathematics : Engaging students with inquiry-based learning. Book 1, Ages 6-8
Allmond, Sue, Wells, Jill and Makar, Katie Thinking through mathematics : Engaging students with inquiry-based learning. Book 1, Ages 6-8. Carlton South, Vic., Australia: Education Services Australia, 2010.
Thinking through mathematics: Engaging students with inquiry-based learning. Book 2, Ages 8-10
Allmond, Sue, Wells, Jill and Makar, Katie Thinking through mathematics: Engaging students with inquiry-based learning. Book 2, Ages 8-10. Carlton South, Vic., Australia: Education Services Australia, 2010.
Thinking through mathematics: Engaging students with inquiry-based learning. Book 3, Ages 10-13
Allmond, Sue, Wells, Jill and Makar, Katie Thinking through mathematics: Engaging students with inquiry-based learning. Book 3, Ages 10-13. Carlton South, Vic., Australia: Education Services Australia, 2010.
Learning about statistical inference
Makar, Katie and Rubin, Andee (2018). Learning about statistical inference. In Dani Ben-Zvi , Katie Makar and Joan Garfield (Ed.), International handbook of research in statistics education (pp. 261-294) Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-66195-7_8
Makar, Katie (2018). Theorising links between context and structure to introduce powerful statistical ideas in the early years. In Early mathematics learning and development (pp. 3-20) Singapore: Springer Singapore. doi:10.1007/978-981-13-1044-7_1
Teaching and learning probability and statistics: an integrated perspective
Langrall, Cynthia W., Makar, Katie, Nilsson, Per and Shaughnessy, J. Michael (2017). Teaching and learning probability and statistics: an integrated perspective. In Jinfa Cai (Ed.), Compendium for research in mathematics education (pp. 490-525) Reston, VA, United States: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
International perspectives on the teaching and learning of statistics
Ben-zvi, Dani and Makar, Katie (2016). International perspectives on the teaching and learning of statistics. In Dani Ben-Zvi and Katie Makar (Ed.), The teaching and learning of statistics (pp. 1-10) Heidelberg, Germany: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-23470-0_1
Introduction: Research in Mathematics Education in Australasia 2012–2015
Makar, Katie, Dole, Shelley, Visnovska, Jana, Goos, Merrilyn, Bennison, Anne and Fry, Kym (2016). Introduction: Research in Mathematics Education in Australasia 2012–2015. In Katie Makar, Shelley Dole, Jana Visnovska, Merrilyn Goos, Anne Bennison and Kym Fry (Ed.), Research in Mathematics Education in Australasia 2012-2015 (pp. 1-12) City of Singapore, Singapore: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-981-10-1419-2-1
Fielding-Wells, Jill and Makar, Katie (2015). Inferring to a model: using inquiry-based argumentation to challenge young children's expectations of equally likely outcomes. In Andrew Zieffler and Elizabeth Fry (Ed.), Reasoning about uncertainty: learning and teaching informal inferential reasoning (pp. 1-28) Minneapolis, MN, United States: Catalyst Press.
Wondering, wandering or unwavering? Learners' statistical investigations with Fathom
Makar, Katie and Confrey, Jere (2014). Wondering, wandering or unwavering? Learners' statistical investigations with Fathom. In Thomas Wassong, Daniel Frischemeier, Pascal R. Fischer, Reinhard Hochmuth and Peter Bender (Ed.), Mit Werkzeugen Mathematik und Stochastik lernen - Using Tools for Learning Mathematics and Statistics (pp. 351-362) Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Spektrum. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-03104-6_25
Blurring the boundaries: the transformative nature of research participation
Makar, Katie and O'Brien, Mia (2013). Blurring the boundaries: the transformative nature of research participation. In Warren Midgley, Patrick Alan Danaher and Margaret Baguley (Ed.), The Role of Participants in Education Research: Ethics, Epistemologies, and Methods (pp. 110-125) New York, NY, United States: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9780203078389
Technology for enhancing statistical reasoning at the school level
Biehler, Rolph, Ben-Zvi, Dani, Bakker, Arthur and Makar, Katie (2013). Technology for enhancing statistical reasoning at the school level. In M. A. (Ken) Clement, Alan J. Bishop, Christine Keitel, Jeremy Kilpatrick and Frederick K. S. Leung (Ed.), Third International Handbook of Mathematics Education (pp. 643-689) New York, NY, United States: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-4684-2_21
The pedagogy of mathematics inquiry
Makar, Katie (2012). The pedagogy of mathematics inquiry. In Robyn M. Gillies (Ed.), Pedagogy: new developments in the learning sciences (pp. 371-397) New York, United States: Nova Science Publishers.
Teaching teachers to teach statistical investigations
Makar, Katie and Fielding-Wells, Jill (2011). Teaching teachers to teach statistical investigations. In Carmen Batanero, Gail Burrill and Chris Reading (Ed.), Teaching statistics in school mathematics: Challenges for teaching and teacher education. A Joint ICMI/IASE Study: The 18th ICMI Study (pp. 347-358) Dordrech, Netherlands: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-1131-0_33
Mathematical knowledge and practices resulting from access to digital technologies
Olive, John and Makar, Katie (2010). Mathematical knowledge and practices resulting from access to digital technologies. In C. Hoyles and J-B. Lagrange (Ed.), Mathematics Education and Technology - Rethinking the Terrain (pp. 133-178) New York, United States: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-0146-0_8
Makar, K. and Confrey, J. (2007). Moving the context of modelling to the forefront: Preservice teachers’ investigations of equity in testing. In W. Blum, P. L. Galbraith, H.-W. Henn and M. Niss (Ed.), Modelling and applications in mathematics education: the 14th ICMI study (pp. 485-490) Norwell, USA: Springer.
Confrey, Jere and Makar, Katie M. (2005). Critiquing and improving the use of data from high-stakes tests with the aid of dynamic statistics software. In Chris Dede, James P. Honan and Laurence C. Peters (Ed.), Scaling up success: Lessons learned from technology-based educational improvement (pp. 198-226) San Francisco, CA, Australia: Jossey-Bass.
Secondary teachers’ statistical reasoning in comparing two groups
Makar, Katie and Confrey, Jere (2004). Secondary teachers’ statistical reasoning in comparing two groups. In Dani Ben-Zvi and Joan Garfield (Ed.), The challenge of developing statistical literacy, reasoning, and thinking (pp. 353-373) Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. doi:10.1007/1-4020-2278-6_15
Makar, Katie, Ali, Muhammad and Fry, Kym (2018) Narrative and inquiry as a basis for a design framework to reconnect mathematics curriculum with students. International Journal of Educational Research, . doi:10.1016/j.ijer.2018.09.021
Statistical modelling and repeatable structures: purpose, process and prediction
Makar, Katie and Allmond, Sue (2018) Statistical modelling and repeatable structures: purpose, process and prediction. ZDM, . doi:10.1007/s11858-018-0956-y
Blue, Levon, O'Brien, Mia and Makar, Katie (2018) Exploring the classroom practices that may enable a compassionate approach to financial literacy education. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 30 2: 143-164. doi:10.1007/s13394-017-0223-5
Makar, Katie and Fielding-Wells, Jill (2018) Shifting more than the goal posts: developing classroom norms of inquiry-based learning in mathematics. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 30 1: 53-63. doi:10.1007/s13394-017-0215-5
A modeling approach to the development of students' informal inferential reasoning1
Doerr, Helen M., Delmas, Robert and Makar, Katie (2017) A modeling approach to the development of students' informal inferential reasoning1. Statistics Education Research Journal, 16 2: 86-115.
Dierdorp, Adri, Bakker, Arthur, Ben-Zvi, Dani and Makar, Katie (2017) Secondary students' considerations of variability in measurement activities based on authentic practices. Statistics Education Research Journal, 16 2: 397-418.
Fielding-Wells, Jill, O'Brien, Mia and Makar, Katie (2017) Using expectancy-value theory to explore aspects of motivation in inquiry based learning in primary mathematics. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 29 2: 237-254. doi:10.1007/s13394-017-0201-y
Bakker, Arthur, Ben-Zvi, Dani and Makar, Katie (2017) An inferentialist perspective on the coordination of actions and reasons involved in making a statistical inference. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 29 4: 1-16. doi:10.1007/s13394-016-0187-x
Developing young children's emergent inferential practices in statistics
Makar, Katie (2016) Developing young children's emergent inferential practices in statistics. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 18 1: 1-24. doi:10.1080/10986065.2016.1107820
Scaffolding norms of argumentation-based inquiry in a primary mathematics classroom
Makar, Katie, Bakkar, Arthur and Ben-Zvi, Dani (2015) Scaffolding norms of argumentation-based inquiry in a primary mathematics classroom. ZDM, 47 7: 1107-1120. doi:10.1007/s11858-015-0732-1
Learning to reason from samples
Ben-Zvi, Dani, Bakkar, Arthur and Makar, Katie (2015) Learning to reason from samples. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 88 3: 291-303. doi:10.1007/s10649-015-9593-3
Inquiry pedagogy to promote emerging proportional reasoning in primary students
Fielding-Wells, Jill, Dole, Shelley and Makar, Katie (2014) Inquiry pedagogy to promote emerging proportional reasoning in primary students. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 26 1: 47-77. doi:10.1007/s13394-013-0111-6
Young children's explorations of average through informal inferential reasoning
Makar, Katie (2014) Young children's explorations of average through informal inferential reasoning. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 86 1: 61-78. doi:10.1007/s10649-013-9526-y
Predict! Teaching statistics using informal statistical inference
Makar, Katie (2013) Predict! Teaching statistics using informal statistical inference. Australian Mathematics Teacher, 69 4: 34-40.
Students' emergent articulations of uncertainty while making informal statistical inferences
Ben-Zvi, Dani, Aridor, Keren, Makar, Katie and Bakkar, Arthur (2012) Students' emergent articulations of uncertainty while making informal statistical inferences. ZDM: The International Journal on Mathematics Education, 44 7: 913-925. doi:10.1007/s11858-012-0420-3
The role of context in developing reasoning about informal statistical inference
Makar, Katie and Ben-Zvi, Dani (2011) The role of context in developing reasoning about informal statistical inference. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 13 1-2: 1-4. doi:10.1080/10986065.2011.538291
The reasoning behind informal statistical inference
Makar, Katie, Bakker, Arthur and Ben-Zvi, Dani (2011) The reasoning behind informal statistical inference. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 13 1-2: 152-173. doi:10.1080/10986065.2011.538301
A framework for thinking about informal statistical inference
Makar, Katie and Rubin, Andee (2009) A framework for thinking about informal statistical inference. Statistics Education Research Journal, 8 1: 82-105.
Lifelong learning: Preparing for the future in the middle years
Loch, S. and Makar, K. (2008) Lifelong learning: Preparing for the future in the middle years. Australian Journal of Middle Schooling, 8 2: 5-10.
Elaborating a model of learning to teach mathematical inquiry
Makar, Katie (2007) Elaborating a model of learning to teach mathematical inquiry. Curriculum Leadership, 5 18: .
Makar, K. (2007) Connection levers: Supports for building teachers’ confidence and commitment to teach mathematics and statistics through inquiry. Mathematics Teacher Education and Development, 8 Special Issue: 48-73.
Designing professional development to support teacher’s learning in complex environments
Goos, Merrilyn, Dole, Shelley and Makar, Katie (2007) Designing professional development to support teacher’s learning in complex environments. Mathematics Teacher Education and Development, 8 Special Issue: 23-47.
Makar, Katie and Confrey, Jere (2007) MOVING THE CONTEXT OF MODELLING TO THE FOREFRONT: PRESERVICE TEACHERS' INVESTIGATIONS OF EQUITY IN TESTING. Modelling and Applications in Mathematics Education: the 14Th Icmi Study, 10 484-489.
Variation talk: Articulating meaning in statistics
Makar, Katie and Confrey, Jere (2005) Variation talk: Articulating meaning in statistics. Statistics Education Research Journal, 4 1: 27-54.
Undertaking data analysis of student outcomes as professional development for teachers
Confrey, Jere, Makar, Katie and Kazak, Sibel (2004) Undertaking data analysis of student outcomes as professional development for teachers. ZDM: The International Journal on Mathematics Education, 36 1: 32-40. doi:10.1007/BF02655755
Allmond, Sue, Hillman, Judith, Huntly, Karen, Makar, Katie and O'Brien, Mia (2016). Assessing children’s progress in taking intellectual risks in a mathematical inquiry classroom with a positive learning approach. In: Proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia (MERGA39). 39th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia (MERGA39), Adelaide, VIC, Australia, (). 3 - 7 July 2016.
Improving the intellectual quality of pedagogy in primary classrooms through mathematical inquiry
Makar, Katie (2016). Improving the intellectual quality of pedagogy in primary classrooms through mathematical inquiry. In: Bruce White, Mohan Chinnappan and Sven Trentolm, Opening up Mathematics Education Research: Proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia. Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia, Adelaide, SA, Australia, (429-436). 3-7 July 2016.
"If it doesn't have an apex it's not a pyramid": argumentation as a bridge to mathematical reasoning
Fielding-Wells, Jill and Makar, Katie (2015). "If it doesn't have an apex it's not a pyramid": argumentation as a bridge to mathematical reasoning. In: Kim Beswick, Tracey Muir and Jill Wells, Proceedings of the 39th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Psychology of Mathematics Education: PME 39, Hobart, TAS, Australia, (297-304). 13-18 July 2015.
How inquiry pedagogy enables teachers to facilitate growth mindsets in mathematics classrooms
O'Brien, Mia, Makar, Katie, Fielding-Wells, Jill and Hillman, Jude (2015). How inquiry pedagogy enables teachers to facilitate growth mindsets in mathematics classrooms. In: Margaret Marshman, Vince Geiger and Anne Bennison, Mathematics education in the margins: proceedings of the 38th annual conference of the mathematics education research group of Australasia. Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia Conference, Sippy Downs, QLD, Australia, (469-476). 28 June - 2 July 2015.
Teacher's scaffolding over the year to develop norms of mathematical inquiry in a primary classroom
Makar, Katie, Bakker, Arthur and Ben-Zvi, Dani (2015). Teacher's scaffolding over the year to develop norms of mathematical inquiry in a primary classroom. In: Margaret Marshman, Vince Geiger and Anne Bennison, Mathematics education in the margins: proceedings of the 38th annual conference of the mathematics education research group of Australasia. Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia Conference, Sippy Downs, QLD, Australia, (397-404). 29 June - 2 July 2015.
Exposing young children to activities that develop emergent inferential practices in statistics
McPhee, Debra and Makar, Katie (2014). Exposing young children to activities that develop emergent inferential practices in statistics. In: K. Makar, B. Sousa and R. Gould, Sustainability in statistics education. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Teaching Statistics. International Conference on Teaching Statistics (ICOTS9), Flagstaff, AZ, United States, (). 13-18 July 2014.
Allmond, Sue and Makar, Katie (2014). From hat plots to box plots in TinkerPlots: supporting students to write conclusions which account for variability in data. In: Katie Makar, Bruno de Sousa and Robert Gould, ICOTS-9 Conference Proceedings: Sustainability in statistics education. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Teaching Statistics. ICOTS9: 9th International Conference on Teaching Statistics 2014, Flagstaff, AZ, USA, (1-6). 13-18 July, 2014.
Informal statistical inference revisited
Makar, Katie and Rubin, Andee (2014). Informal statistical inference revisited. In: Katie Makar, Bruno de Sousa and Robert Gould, ICOTS-9 Conference Proceedings: Sustainability in statistics education. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Teaching Statistics. ICOTS9: 9th International Conference on Teaching Statistics 2014, Flagstaff, AZ, USA, (1-6). 13-18 July, 2014.
Building relationships between state stakeholders and researchers: people, persistence and passion
Horne, Rhonda and Makar, Katie (2013). Building relationships between state stakeholders and researchers: people, persistence and passion. In: Vicki Steinle, Lynda Ball and Caroline Bardini, MERGA36: 2013. Mathematics Education: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow. Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia. MERGA 36: 36th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia, Melbourne, VIC, Australia, (767-770). 7-11 July, 2013.
From small project to large-scale implementation: bridging research and practice
Makar, K., Dole, S., Horne, R., Debritz, C. and Allmond, S. (2013). From small project to large-scale implementation: bridging research and practice. In: MERGA 36: 36th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia, Melbourne, VIC, Australia, (). 7-11 July, 2013.
Fielding-Wells, Jill and Makar, Katie (2013). Inferring to a model: using inquiry-based argumentation to challenge young children's expectations of equally likely outcomes. In: SRTL-8: The International Collaboration for Research on Statistical Reasoning, Thinking and Literacy. Reasoning About Uncertainty in the Context of Making Informal Statistical Inferences. The Eighth International Research Forum on Statistical Reasoning, Thinking, and Literacy (SRTL-8), Two Harbors, MN, USA, (184-200). 18-24 August, 2013.
Inquiry-based learning in mathematics: designing collaborative research with schools
Makar, Katie and Dole, Shelley (2013). Inquiry-based learning in mathematics: designing collaborative research with schools. In: Vicki Steinle, Lynda Ball and Caroline Bardini, MERGA36: 2013. Mathematics Education: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow. Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia. MERGA 36: 36th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia, Melbourne, VIC, Australia, (755-758). 7-11 July, 2013.
Bakker, Arthur, Ben-Zvi, Dani, Makar, Katie and Kurvers, Tim (2013). Reducing uncertainty in a hospital laboratory: a vocational student's web of reasons and actions involved in making a statistical inference. In: SRTL-8: The International Collaboration for Research on Statistical Reasoning, Thinking and Literacy. Reasoning About Uncertainty in the Context of Making Informal Statistical Inferences. The Eighth International Research Forum on Statistical Reasoning, Thinking, and Literacy (SRTL-8), Two Harbors, MN, USA, (34-48). 18-24 August 2013.
Assessing for learning in inquiry mathematics
Fry, Kym and Makar, Katie (2012). Assessing for learning in inquiry mathematics. In: Proceedings of the Twelfth International Congress of Mathematics Education. 12th International Congress of Mathematics Education, Seoul, Korea, (6699-6708). 8-15 July 2012.
Developing primary students' argumentation skills in inquiry-based mathematics classrooms
Fielding-Wells, Jill and Makar, Katie (2012). Developing primary students' argumentation skills in inquiry-based mathematics classrooms. In: Jan van Aalst, Kate Thompson, Michael J. Jacobson and Peter Reimann, ICLS Conference Proceedings – Volume 2, Short Papers, Symposia, and Abstracts. 10th International Conference of the Learning Sciences: The Future of Learning, Sydney, Australia, (149-153). 2-6 July 2012.
Embedding authenticity and cultural relevance in the primary mathematics curriculum
Rampal, Anita and Makar, Katie (2012). Embedding authenticity and cultural relevance in the primary mathematics curriculum. In: Proceedings of the Twelfth International Congress of Mathematics Education. The Twelfth International Congress of Mathematics Education, Seoul, Korea, (6616-6625). 8-15 July 2012.
Enacting the intended curriculum through inquiry pedagogy
Dole, Shelley, Makar, Katie and Gillies, Robyn (2012). Enacting the intended curriculum through inquiry pedagogy. In: Proceedings of the Twelfth International Congress of Mathematics Education. The Twelfth International Congress of Mathematics Education, Seoul, Korea, (6561-6570). 8-15 July 2012.
Children's reasoning about samples in an inquiry-based learning environment
Ben-Zvi, Dani, Makar, Katie, Bakker, Arthur and Aridor, Keren (2011). Children's reasoning about samples in an inquiry-based learning environment. In: SRTL-7 - Seventh International Research Forum on Statistical Reasoning, Thinking and Literacy, Utrecht, Netherlands, (1-12). 17-23 July 2011.
Children’s emergent inferential reasoning about samples in an inquiry-based environment
Ben-Zvi, Dani, Makar, Katie, Bakker, Arthur and Aridor, Keren (2011). Children’s emergent inferential reasoning about samples in an inquiry-based environment. In: Marta Pytlak, Tim Rowland and Ewa Swoboda, Symposium and Working Group 5 on Stochastic Thinking at the Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education. 7th Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education, Rzeszow, Poland, (745-754). 9 - 13 February 2011.
Is this game 1 or game 2? Primary children's reasoning about samples during inquiry
Makar, Katie, Wells, Jill and Allmond, Sue (2011). Is this game 1 or game 2? Primary children's reasoning about samples during inquiry. In: SRTL-7: The International Collaboration for Research on Statistical Reasoning, Thinking and Learning. Presentation papers. International Research Forum on Statistical Reasoning, Thinking and Literacy (7th, SRTL, 2011), Utrecht, Netherlands, (17-39). 17-23 July 2011.
Learning over time: Pedagogical change in teaching mathematical inquiry
Makar, Katie (2011). Learning over time: Pedagogical change in teaching mathematical inquiry. In: Julie Clark, Barry Kissane, Judith Mousley, Toby Spencer and Steve Thornton, Mathematics: Traditions and [New] Practices : Proceedings of the AAMT–MERGA Conference. Mathematics Research Group of Australasia (MERGA) 2011, Alice Springs, NT, Australia, (27-37). 3 - 7 July 2011.
Developing primary students' ability to pose questions in statistical investigations
Allmond, Sue and Makar, Katie (2010). Developing primary students' ability to pose questions in statistical investigations. In: Chris Reading, Data and context in statistical education: Towards an evidence-based society. 8th International Conference on Teaching Statistics (ICOTS8), Ljubljana, Slovenia, (). 11-16 July 2010.
Teaching primary teachers to teach statistical inquiry: The uniqueness of initial experiences
Makar, Katie (2010). Teaching primary teachers to teach statistical inquiry: The uniqueness of initial experiences. In: Chris Reading, Data and context in statistical education: Towards an evidence-based society. 8th International Conference on Teaching Statistics (ICOTS8), Ljubljana, Slovenia, (). 11-16 July 2010.
Towards a framework for understanding students' informal statistical inference and argumentation
Ben-Zvi, D., Makar, K. and Bakker, A. (2009). Towards a framework for understanding students' informal statistical inference and argumentation. In: Sixth International Forum for Research on Statistical Reasoning, Thinking and Literacy, Brisbane, Australia, (). 10-16 July 2009.
Young children's exploration of average in an inquiry classroom
Makar, Katie and McPhee, D. (2009). Young children's exploration of average in an inquiry classroom. In: R. Hunter, B. Bicknell and T. Burgess, MERGA 32: Crossing Divides. 32nd Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia, Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand, (347-354). 5-9 July 2009.
A model of learning to teach statistical inquiry
Makar, Katie (2008). A model of learning to teach statistical inquiry. In: Batanero, C., Burrill, G., Reading, C. and Rossman, A, Proceedings of the ICMI Study 18 Conference and IASE 2008 Round Table Conference. Joint ICMI/IASE Study Statistics in School Mathematics. Challenges for Teaching and Teacher Education, Monterrey, Mexico, (1-6). 30 June - 4 July 2008.
Knowledge for teaching mathematics through inquiry
Makar, K. (2008). Knowledge for teaching mathematics through inquiry. In: Adler, J. and Ball, D., Eleventh International Congress for Mathematical Education (ICME-11). Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching, Monterrey, Mexico, (1-8). 6-13 July 2008.
Student (dis)engagement in mathematics
Fielding-Wells, Jill and Makar, Katie (2008). Student (dis)engagement in mathematics. In: P. L. Jeffery, Annual Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Education (AARE). AARE 2008 International Education Conference Brisbane: Changing Climates: Education for Sustainable Futures, Brisbane, Australia, (1-10). 30 November-4 December 2008.
Using mathematical inquiry to engage student learning within the overall curriculum
Fielding-Wells, J. and Makar, K. (2008). Using mathematical inquiry to engage student learning within the overall curriculum. In: J. Adler and D. Ball, Eleventh International Congress for Mathematical Education (ICME-11). Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching, Monterrey, Mexico, (1-17). 6-13 July 2008.
'Connection levers': Developing teachers expertise with mathematical inquiry
Makar, K. (2007). 'Connection levers': Developing teachers expertise with mathematical inquiry. In: Watson, J. and Beswick, K., Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia. Mathematics: Essential Research, Essential Practice, Wrest Point Hotel Casino, Hobart, TAS, (483-492). 2-6 July 2007.
Beyond the bar graph: Teaching informal statistical inference in primary school
Makar, K. and Rubin, A. (2007). Beyond the bar graph: Teaching informal statistical inference in primary school. In: J. Ainley and D. Pratt, Proceedings of the Fifth International Research Forum on Statistical Reasoning, Thinking and Literacy. Reasoning about Statistical Inference: Innovative Ways of Connecting Chance and Data, The University of Warwick, (1-29). 11-17 August 2007.
Goos, Merrilyn, Dole, Shelley and Makar, Katie (2007). Supporting an investigative approach to teaching secondary school mathematics: A professional development model. In: J. Watson and K. Beswick, Mathematics: Essential research, essential practice : Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasi. Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia Conference, Hobart, Australia, (325-334). 2-6 July 2007.
Dynamic statistical software: How are learners using it to conduct data-based investigations?
Makar, K and Confrey, J. (2006). Dynamic statistical software: How are learners using it to conduct data-based investigations?. In: C. Hoyles, J. B. Lagrange and L. H. Son et al., Proceedings of the Seventeenth ICMI Study Conference. Digital Technologies and Mathematics Teaching and Learning: Rn, Hanoi University of Technology, (). 3-8 December 2006.
Innovative inquiry-based mathematics teaching in middle school. .
Makar, Katie (2006). Innovative inquiry-based mathematics teaching in middle school. .. In: Excitement in the Classroom: ACEL/Microsoft Online Conference on Innovative Teaching and Learning. 1st ACEL Microsoft Online Conference, online, (). 2006.
Preservice teachers' informal descriptions of variation
Canada, D. and Makar, K. (2006). Preservice teachers' informal descriptions of variation. In: Program and Supplements of the 2006 AERA Annual Meeting: Research in the Public Interest. 2006 AERA Annual Meeting: Research in the Public Interest, San Francisco, California, (281-281). 7 - 11 April, 2006.
Preservice teachers’ conceptions of variation
Makar, Katie and Canada, Dan (2005). Preservice teachers’ conceptions of variation. In: Chick, H.L. and Vincent, J.L., Proceedings of the 29th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Psychology of Mathematics Education PME 29, University of Melbourne, (273-280). 10-15 July, 2005.
Using distributions as statistical evidence in well-structured and ill-structured problems
Makar, Katie and Confrey, Jere (2005). Using distributions as statistical evidence in well-structured and ill-structured problems. In: K. Makar, Proceedings of the Fourth International Research Forum on Statistical Reasoning, Thinking and Literacy (SRTL-4). SRTL4 - 2005: Fourth International Research Forum on Statistical Reasoning, Thinking and Literacy, University of Auckland, New Zealand, (). 2-7 July, 2005.
Makar, K. and Confrey, J. (2004). Modeling Fairness of Student Achievement in Mathematics Using Statistical Software by Preservice Secondary Teachers. In: Fourteenth Study of the International Commission on Mathematics Instruction (ICMI-14). Applications and Modelling in Mathematics Education: Fourteenth Study of the International Commission on Mathematics Instruction (ICMI-14), Dortmund, Germany, (). February, 2004.
Clumps, chunks, and spread out: Secondary preservice teachers' reasoning about variation
Makar, K. and Confrey, J. (2003). Clumps, chunks, and spread out: Secondary preservice teachers' reasoning about variation. In: C. Lee, Proceedings of the Third International Research Forum on Statistical Reasoning, Thinking, and Literacy (SRTL-3). Third International Research Forum on Statistical Reasoning, Thinking, and Literacy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska, (). 23-28 Jul 2003.
Confrey, J. and Makar, K. (2003). Critiquing and Improving Data Use from High Stakes Tests: Understanding Variation and Distribution in Relation to Equity Using Dynamic Statistics Software. In: Scaling Up Success: A Usable Knowledge Conference, Harvard Graduate School of Education, University of Harvard, (). 20-21 Mar 2003.
Navigating currents and charting directions: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia (2008) . Edited by Merrilyn E. Goos, Ray Brown and Katie Makar. MERGA31: Navigating currents and charting directions, 28 June - 1 July 2008, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
Reasoning about distribution: A collection of current research studies. Proceedings of the Fourth International Research Forum on Statistical Reasoning, Thinking, and Literacy (SRTL-4) (2005) . Edited by Makar, K.. Fourth International Research Forum on Statistical Reasoning, Thinking, and Literacy (SRTL-4), 2–7 July, University of Auckland, New Zealand.
Makar, Katie (2007) Professional standards for Queensland teachers: Processes and debates. Development of the consultation draft : Queensland College of Teachers
Developing classroom norms of inquiry based learning in mathematics
(2017–2019) ARC Discovery Projects
(2014–2017) Griffith University
(2014) ARC Discovery Projects
For the Sake of the Argument: Developing Students' Inferential Arguments in Statistics
(2012–2014) ARC Discovery Projects
Inquiry Teaching in Mathematics: Accelerating the process of change
(2009–2012) ARC Linkage Projects
Elaborating a model of learning to teach mathematical inquiry
(2007–2009) ARC Linkage Projects
Investigating Teachers' Cycles of Statistical Inquiry in Middle Years Teaching and Learning
(2006) UQ Early Career Researcher
Note for students: Associate Professor Katie Makar is not currently available to take on new students.
Factors influencing classroom discourse in science class
Doctor Philosophy — Principal Advisor
Other advisors:
Language Games in Primary Mathematics: a qualitative study of how dialogic pedagogy is further enabled by using Wittgenstein's notion of language games to provide rich contexts for talk in primary mathematics
Master Philosophy — Principal Advisor
Other advisors:
One school's perception of implementing and enacting creative thinking in the high school classroom
Doctor Philosophy — Principal Advisor
Narrative /experience of students from refugee and asylum seeker background in higher education in Australia
Doctor Philosophy — Principal Advisor
Other advisors:
First Year University Students Making Sense of Statistics Through Storytelling
Doctor Philosophy — Principal Advisor
Other advisors:
Trust and teacher learning: a collective case study.
Master Philosophy — Principal Advisor
Reflection of the teacher professional community in terms of teachers' instruction design to a school program: from response to intervention (RTI) model
Doctor Philosophy — Associate Advisor
Other advisors:
Understanding different approaches to mathematics teaching and resulting mathematical classroom discourses in Iran
Doctor Philosophy — Associate Advisor
Other advisors:
A phenomenal profession: learning teaching while teaching learning
Doctor Philosophy — Associate Advisor
The role of dialogic argumentation in science education for decision-making
(2018) Doctor Philosophy — Principal Advisor
Other advisors:
(2017) Doctor Philosophy — Principal Advisor
Exploring the Impact of Inquiry Learning on Students' Beliefs and Attitudes towards Mathematics
(2016) Doctor Philosophy — Principal Advisor
Other advisors:
Measuring Messy Mathematics: Assessing learning in a mathematical inquiry context
(2016) Doctor Philosophy — Principal Advisor
(2015) Master Philosophy — Principal Advisor
Other advisors:
Developing argumentation in mathematics: The role of evidence and context
(2014) Doctor Philosophy — Principal Advisor
(2014) Doctor Philosophy — Principal Advisor
Exploring the lifelong learner qualities of post-diploma learners pursuing a degree
(2009) Master Philosophy — Principal Advisor
Curriculum Policy Enactment and Spaces of Change: A Bourdieuian Field Analysis
(2018) Doctor Philosophy — Associate Advisor
Other advisors:
(2016) Doctor Philosophy — Associate Advisor
Perspective Transformation in Service-Learning: A Grounded Conceptualization of Student Experiences
(2013) Master Philosophy — Associate Advisor
(2009) Master Philosophy — Associate Advisor
Other advisors:
Note for students: The possible research projects listed on this page may not be comprehensive
or up to date. Always feel free to contact the staff for more information, and also with your own research ideas.
Associate Professor Katie Makar is not
currently available to take on new students.
Inquiry-based learning in mathematics
My main research focus is on understanding aspects of students and teachers' development of inquiry-based learning in mathematics. I would welcome RHD students with an interest in this area.
NOTE: I am not taking any new students at this time.
Informal Statistical Inference
Most of my international publications and theoretical contributions have been in statistics education, particularly around informal statistical inference. My work focuses on its use with children from prep (age 4-5) through the school years.
NOTE: I am not taking any new students at this time.