Circulation in the realm of intangible property: the development of end-point royalties in Australian agriculture and the transformation of intellectual property (2019–2021)
The challenges of enforcing intellectual property (IP) rights over protected biological materials have led agricultural
industries in Australia to implement a new system for the collection of royalties on harvested material. This system solved
several dilemmas of previous royalty arrangements, but it created new challenges in regulating the circulation of
IP-protected materials. This project explores the mechanisms used to regulate the circulation of protected materials
under this new system. In tracking these shifts, it furthers scholarship on the transformation of IP and how such
transformations affect access to and control over IP-protected biological materials for IP owners, farmers, breeders, and
others in the agricultural sector.