Dr Timothy Ballard

Research Fellow (DECRA)

School of Psychology
Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences
+61 7 334 69506


My research sits at the intersection of organisational and cognitive psychology. My main areas of interest are motivation, decision making, and performance. A core aim is understanding how people navigate dynamic, complex, and uncertain environments. Much of this research aims to uncover the general principles at the core of these processes. Other aspects of the research focus on practical problems such as understanding how people respond to climate change. I am also interested in research methods, in particular formal/computational modelling and Bayesian statistics. My aim is to develop and promote the methodological tools that enable people to conduct more rigorous and replicable research.

Research Impacts

Journal Publications:

Ballard, T., Vancouver, J. B., & Neal, A. (in press). On the pursuit of multiple goals with different deadlines. Journal of Applied Psychology. PDF Supplementary Material

Ballard, T., Farrell, S., & Neal, A. (in press). Quantifying the psychological value of goal acheivement. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review.

Ballard, T., Yeo, G.,Vancouver, J. B., & Neal, A. (2017). The dynamics of avoidance goal regulation. Motivation and Emotion, 41, 1-10.

Neal, A., Ballard, T., Vancouver, J. B. (2017). Dynamic self-regulation and multiple-goal pursuit. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology & Organizational Behavior, 4, 410-423.

Ballard. T., Yeo, G., Loft, S., Vancouver, J. B., & Neal, A. (2016). An integrative formal model of motivation and decision making: The MGPM*. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101, 1240-1265.

Ballard, T., Yeo, G., Neal, A., & Farrell, S. (2016). Departures from optimality when pursuing multiple approach or avoidance goals. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101, 1056-1066. PDF

Lewandowsky, S., Ballard, T., Oberauer, K., & Benestad, R. (2016). A blind test of contrarian interpretations of climate data. Global Environmental Change, 39, 91-97. PDF Media: Washington Post - The Guardian - Brisbane Times

Ballard, T. & Lewandowsky, S. (2015). When, not if: the inescapability of an uncertain climate future. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, 373, 1-10. PDF

Lewandowsky, S., Ballard, T., & Pancost, R. D. (2015). Uncertainty as knowledge. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, 373, 1-11. PDF Media: The Guardian - Phys.org

Manuscripts In Revision

Neal, A., Ballard, T., & Yeo, G. (in revision). Developing and testing a cognitive-energetic model of cognitive, motivational and affective processes during goal pursuit. Journal of Applied Psychology.

Book Chapters:

Gee, P., Ballard, T., Yeo, G., & Neal, A. (2012). Measuring Affect over Time: The Momentary Affect Scale. In Ashkanasy, N. M., Härtel, C. E. J., & Zerbe, W. J. (Eds.), Research on emotions in organisations, Volume 8: The emotions of compassion and care. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing/JAI Press. PDF


  • Doctor of Philosophy, The University of Western Australia
  • Bachelor of Psychological Science (Hons), The University of Queensland


View all Publications


  • Doctor Philosophy

  • Doctor Philosophy

  • Doctor Philosophy

View all Supervision


Book Chapter

  • Gee, Phillip, Ballard, Timothy, Yeo, Gillian and Neal, Andrew (2012). Measuring affect over time: the momentary affect scale. In Neal M. Ashkanasy, Wilfred J. Zerbe and Charmine E. J. Härtel (Ed.), Experiencing and managing emotions in the workplace (pp. 141-173) Bingley, United Kingdom: Emerald Group Publishing. doi:10.1108/S1746-9791(2012)0000008010

Journal Article

PhD and MPhil Supervision

Current Supervision

  • Doctor Philosophy — Principal Advisor

  • Doctor Philosophy — Principal Advisor

    Other advisors:

  • Doctor Philosophy — Principal Advisor

    Other advisors:

  • Doctor Philosophy — Associate Advisor

    Other advisors: