Dr Chris James

ARC DECRA Research Fellow

School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering
Faculty of Engineering, Architecture and Information Technology
c.james4@uq.edu.au
+61 7 336 54864
0413642000

Overview

Chris James' research is in the field of experimental hypersonics. His research interests include expansion tube and shock tunnel test facility design and condition development and the experimental study of planetary entry aerothermodynamics using both optical techniques and physical measurements. Chris has authored and co-authored 23 journal publications and 44 conference publications in his field.

Chris graduated from Mechanical Engineering at UQ in 2012. Following this, he completed his PhD in the Centre for Hypersonics at the University of Queensland (UQ).

During his PhD he developed very high speed Uranus and Saturn entry conditions which were used to perform the fastest experiments which have ever been performed in an expansion tube, as well as developing expansion tube simulation and analysis codes which are now widely used in the Centre for Hypersonics. He also enrolled in a cotutelle program with École Centrale Paris in Paris, France, and after being awarded an Eiffel Excellence Scholarship by the French government, he passed a year on exchange in Paris, France. In France, Chris was working on developing the capability to perform radiating simulations to support his experimental work at UQ.

Post PhD he was employed in the Centre for Hypersonics helping to develop the X3R reflected shock tunnel, while also supervising and conducting expansion tube research on the X2 expansion tube at UQ.

In 2020, Chris took on a lecturing position for the year and was awarded an Australian Research Council DECRA early career fellowship to study Mars return conditions with heated test models at UQ over the next several years. He was the 2020 recipient of the UQ EAIT Faculty Early Career Researcher Award.

Chris lectures in the School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering at UQ. He lectures both hypersonics and space engineering, covering varied topics such as high temperature gas dynamics, rarefied gas dynamics, orbital mechanics, rocket trajectories, spacecraft design, spacecraft thermal and power management, and planetary entry.

Research Interests

  • Planetary entry aerothermodynamics
  • Nonequilibrium hypersonic flows
  • Ablating hypersonic flows
  • Expansion tube facility development and test condition characterisation
  • Improving optical and physical measurement techniques for hypersonic flows

Qualifications

  • Doctor of Philosophy, The University of Queensland
  • Bachelor of Engineering, The University of Queensland

Publications

  • Zander, Fabian, Buttsworth, David R., Birch, Byrenn, Noller, Lachlan, Wright, Duncan, James, Christopher M., Thompson, Matthew, Apirana, Steven, Leis, John, Lobsey, Craig and Payne, Allan (2021). Australian rapid-response airborne observation of the Hayabusa2 reentry. Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, 1-5. doi: 10.2514/1.a35062

  • Apirana, Steve F., James, Christopher M., Lewis, Steven and Morgan, Richard G. (2021). Experimental methods for studying post shock relaxation. AIAA Scitech 2021 Forum, Virtual, 11–15 and 19–21 January 2021. Reston, VA USA: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. doi: 10.2514/6.2021-0446

  • Cullen, Timothy G., James, Christopher M., Ravichandran, Ranjith, Thompson, Matthew, Moran, Michael, Ramesh, Ranjini, Morgan, Richard G. and Nadesan, Thirukumaran (2021). Infrared thermography on a biconic model in Hypersonic expansion tube flows. AIAA Scitech 2021 Forum, Virtual, 11–15 and 19–21 January 2021. Reston, VA USA: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. doi: 10.2514/6.2021-0873

View all Publications

Supervision

  • Doctor Philosophy

  • Doctor Philosophy

  • Doctor Philosophy

View all Supervision

Available Projects

  • Opportunities always exist for the study of planetary entry in our impulse wind tunnel facilities, either with or without ablation and radiation. These opportunities relate to the particular planetary entry issues which are popular at the time. Currently, these include high speed Earth re-entry which is important for return from Mars in the future, giant planet entry for a planned Uranus or Neptune entry mission, Mars entry at large scale, and Titan entry for an upcoming NASA mission. The phenomena which is studied depends on the particular physical phenomena which is uncertain for the particular scenario. For high speed Earth re-entry, this is the interaction of radiation and ablation, for giant planet entry it is the study of the largely non-equilibrium post-shock flow, for Mars entry it is radiation at low temperatures as seen on the backshell of the vehicle or later in the trajectory, as well as turbulent heating due to the large vehicle sizes, for example. Students with an interest in these topics should contact Dr James directly at c.james4@uq.edu.au for details of specific projects.

View all Available Projects

Publications

Journal Article

Conference Publication

  • Apirana, Steve F., James, Christopher M., Lewis, Steven and Morgan, Richard G. (2021). Experimental methods for studying post shock relaxation. AIAA Scitech 2021 Forum, Virtual, 11–15 and 19–21 January 2021. Reston, VA USA: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. doi: 10.2514/6.2021-0446

  • Cullen, Timothy G., James, Christopher M., Ravichandran, Ranjith, Thompson, Matthew, Moran, Michael, Ramesh, Ranjini, Morgan, Richard G. and Nadesan, Thirukumaran (2021). Infrared thermography on a biconic model in Hypersonic expansion tube flows. AIAA Scitech 2021 Forum, Virtual, 11–15 and 19–21 January 2021. Reston, VA USA: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. doi: 10.2514/6.2021-0873

  • Eldridge, Robert W., Phan, Tan, James, Christopher M. and Apirana, Steve F. (2021). Instrumented hypervelocity testing using additive manufacturing. AIAA Scitech 2021 Forum, Virtual, 11–15 and 19–21 January 2021. Reston, VA USA: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. doi: 10.2514/6.2021-1630

  • Liu, Yu, James, Christopher M., Morgan, Richard G. and McIntyre, Timothy (2021). Self-absorption and electron number density measurements on Saturn entry radiation. AIAA Scitech 2021 Forum, Virtual, 11–15 and 19–21 January 2021. Reston, VA USA: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. doi: 10.2514/6.2021-0209

  • Liu, Yu, James, Christopher M., Morgan, Richard G. and McIntyre, Timothy J. (2020). Using aerothermodynamic similarity to experimentally study nonequilibrium giant planet entry. Joint Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference, Atlanta, GA, United States, 25-29 June 2018. Reston, VA, United States: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. doi: 10.2514/1.a34713

  • Geraets, Rowland T. Penty, McGilvray, Matthew, Doherty, Luke J., Morgan, Richard G., James, Christopher M. and Buttsworth, David R. (2020). Development of a fast-response diamond calorimeter heat transfer gauge. 33rd AIAA Aerodynamic Measurement Technology and Ground Testing Conference, Denver, CO USA, 5-9 June 2017. Reston, VA United States: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. doi: 10.2514/1.t5688

  • James, Christopher M., Ravichandran, Ranjith, Smith, Daniel R., Cullen, Timothy G. and Morgan, Richard (2020). Scaled Apollo Heating Testing in a Large Expansion Tube. AIAA AVIATION 2020 FORUM , Virtual Event, 15-19 June 2020. Reston, VA United States: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. doi: 10.2514/6.2020-3278

  • James, Christopher M., Liu, Yu and Morgan, Richard (2020). Simulating Uranus Entry in an Expansion Tube. AIAA AVIATION 2020 FORUM , Virtual Event, 15-19 June 2020. Reston, VA United States: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. doi: 10.2514/6.2020-3110

  • Stennett, Samuel J., Gildfind, David, Jacobs, Peter, Morgan, Richard, James, Christopher and Toniato, Pierpaolo (2020). The X3R Free-Piston Reflected Shock Tunnel: Australia's New Large-Scale, Long-Duration Hypersonic Testing Capability. 23rd AIAA International Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference, Montreal, Canada , March 10-12, 2020. Reston, VA United States: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. doi: 10.2514/6.2020-2447

  • Page, Matthew and James, Chris (2019). A preliminary investigation into high-enthalpy free-flying model experiments. 11th Asia-Pacific International Symposium on Aerospace Technology, Gold Coast, Australia, 4-6 December 2019. Gold Coast, Australia: Engineers Australia.

  • Cullen, T., James, C., Gollan, R. and Morgan, R. (2019). Application of Infrared Thermography in an Expansion Tunnel. In: Proceedings of the 32nd International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW32 2019). 32nd International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW32 2019), Singapore, (1139-1165). 14-19 July 2019. doi:10.3850/978-981-11-2730-4_0271-cd

  • James, C.M., Cox, D., Komonen, A., Barltrop, L., Wikner, D.R. and McIntyre, T.J. (2019). Detecting shock arrival in expansion tubes and shock tunnels using high frequency photodiodes. 11th Asia-Pacific International Symposium on Aerospace Technology, Gold Coast, Australia, 4-6 December 2019. Gold Coast, Australia: Engineers Australia.

  • Thompson, M., James, C.M. and Morgan, R.G. (2019). Development of a high enthalpy driver in an expansion tube for generating Uranus entry flow conditions. 11th Asia-Pacific International Symposium on Aerospace Technology, Gold Coast, Australia, 4-6 December 2019. Gold Coast, Australia: Engineers Australia.

  • Cullen, T. G., James, C. M., Gollan, R. J. and Morgan, R. G. (2019). Development of a total enthalpy and Reynolds number matched Apollo re-entry condition in the X2 expansion tunnel. 31st International Symposium on Shock Waves, Nagoya, Japan, 9-14 July 2017. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-91017-8_24

  • Ravichandran, R., Lewis, S.W., James, C.M., Morgan, R.G. and McIntyre, T.J. (2019). Expansion tube experiments of graphite ablation and radiation in hypervelocity earth-entry flows. 8th International Workshop on Radiation of High Temperature Gases, Madrid, Spain, 25-29 March 2019.

  • Thompson, Matthew, James, Christopher M., Lewis, Steven W., Gildfind, David E. and Morgan, Richard G. (2019). Generating 5-km/s low density hypersonic test flows in an expansion tube for studying ultraviolet radiation. 32nd International Symposium on Shock Waves, Singapore, 14-19 July 2019. Singapore: ISSW. doi: 10.3850/978-981-11-2730-4_0337-cd

  • James, Christopher M., Lewis, Steven W., Gildfind, David E., Morgan, Richard G., McIntyre, Timothy J. and Liu, Yu (2019). Generating High Speed Earth Re-entry Test Conditions in an Expansion Tube for Interplanetary Return Missions. 32nd International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW32 2019), Singapore, 14-19 July 2019. Singapore: Research Publishing Services. doi: 10.3850/978-981-11-2730-4_0424-cd

  • James, Christopher, Lewis, Steven, Gildfind, David, Morgan, Richard and McIntyre, Timothy (2019). Generating high speed earth re-entry test conditions in an expansion tube. 8th International Workshop on Radiation of High Temperature Gases, Madrid, Spain, 25-29 March 2019.

  • Temme, Nils, James, Christopher M., McIntyre, Timothy, Lewis, Steven W. and Morgan, Richard G. (2019). Hypervelocity boundary-layer flow with high-temperature surface ablation. AIAA Aviation 2019 Forum, Dallas, TX United States, 17-21 June 2019. Reston, VA United States: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. doi: 10.2514/6.2019-3135

  • Smith, Daniel R., Gildfind, David E. , James, Christopher M., Andrianatos, Andreas, Mee, David J. and McIntyre, Timothy J. (2019). Magnetohydrodynamic drag force measurements in expansion tubes using an accelerometer. 32nd International Symposium on Shock Waves, Singapore, 14-19 July 2019. Singapore: Research Publishing Services. doi: 10.3850/978-981-11-2730-4_0145-cd

  • Liu, Yu, Toniato, Pierpaolo, James, Chris, Morgan, Richard and McIntyre, T.J. (2019). Multidimensional effects and self- absorption on spectroscopic observations of Saturn entry radiation. 11th Asia-Pacific International Symposium on Aerospace Technology, Gold Coast, Australia, 4-6 December 2019. Gold Coast, Australia: Engineers Australia.

  • Millard, T. R. and James, C. M. (2019). Simulation of time resolved radiative emission in the X2 expansion tube. 32nd International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW32 2019), Singapore, 14-19 July 2019. Singapore: Research Publishing Services. doi: 10.3850/978-981-11-2730-4_0009-cd

  • Apirana, S.F.T., James, C.M., Lewis, S.W., Morgan, R.G. and Zander, F. (2019). Studying post-shock relaxation using a Mach Disk. 11th Asia-Pacific International Symposium on Aerospace Technology, Gold Coast, Australia, 4-6 December 2019. Gold Coast, Australia: Engineers Australia.

  • James, Christopher M., Birch, Byrenn, Smith, Daniel R., Cullen, Timothy G., Millard, Theodore, Vella, Samuel, Liu, Yu, Morgan, Richard G., Stern, Nathan and Buttsworth, David (2019). Testing of Ultra Fast Response, Durable Co-axial Thermocouples for High Enthalpy Impulse Facilities. AIAA Aviation 2019 Forum, Dallas, TX United States, 17-21 June 2019. Reston, VA United States: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. doi: 10.2514/6.2019-3007

  • Stennett, S. J., Gildfind, D. E., Jacobs, P. A., Morgan, R. G., James, C. M. and Toniato, P. (2019). The X3R reflected shock tunnel: a new, long-duration operating mode for the X3 expansion tube. Asia Pacific International Symposium on Aerospace Technology (APISAT 2019), Gold Coast, QLD, Australia, 4-6 December 2019.

  • Liu, Yu, James, Christopher M., Morgan, Richard G. and McIntyre, Timothy (2019). Theoretical and experimental study of helium-neon substitution for Saturn entry radiation. AIAA Aviation 2019 Forum, Dallas, TX United States, 17-21 June 2019. Reston, VA United States: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. doi: 10.2514/6.2019-3134

  • James, Christopher M. (2019). Using a Simplified Canny Edge Detector to Detect Shock Arrival in Expansion Tubes and Shock Tunnels. 32nd International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW32 2019), Singapore, 14-19 July 2019. Singapore: Research Publishing Services. doi: 10.3850/978-981-11-2730-4_0031-cd

  • Gildfind, David E., Smith, Daniel, Lewis, Steven W., Kelly, Rory, James, Christopher M., Wei, Han and McIntyre, Timothy (2018). Expansion Tube Magnetohydrodynamic Experiments with Argon Test Gas. 2018 Flow Control Conference, Atlanta, Georgia, 25-29 June 2018. Reston, Virginia: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. doi: 10.2514/6.2018-3754

  • Liu, Yu, James, Christopher M., Morgan, Richard G. and McIntyre, Timothy J. (2018). Experimental study of saturn entry radiation with higher amount of diluent in an expansion tube. 12th AIAA/ASME Joint Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference, 2018, Atlanta, GA United States, 25 - 29 June 2018. Reston, VA United States: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. doi: 10.2514/6.2018-4070

  • Gildfind, David E., Jacobs, Peter A., Gollan, Rowan J., Toniato, Pierpaolo, McIntyre, Timothy J., Andrianatos, Andreas, James, Christopher M. and Morgan, Richard G. (2018). Flow characterization and modeling of the X2 and X3 expansion tubes. VKI Lecture Series STO-AVT-235 on Flow Characterization and Modeling of Hypersonic Wind Tunnels, Brussels, Belgium, 3-5 December 2018.

  • James, Christopher M., Smith, Daniel R., McLean, Carl, Morgan, Richard G., Lewis, Steven W. and Toniato, Pierpaolo (2018). Improving high enthalpy expansion tube condition characterisation using high speed imagery. 34th AIAA Aerodynamic Measurement Technology and Ground Testing Conference 2018, Atlanta, GA United States, 25 - 29 June 2018. Reston, VA United States: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, AIAA. doi: 10.2514/6.2018-3805

  • Smith, Daniel R., Gildfind, David E., James, Christopher M., McIntyre, Timothy J. and Wheatley, Vincent (2018). Magnetohydrodynamic drag force measurements in an expansion tube. 9th AIAA Flow Control Conference 2018, Atlanta, GA United States, 25 - 29 June 2018. Reston, VA United States: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. doi: 10.2514/6.2018-3755

  • Eldridge, R., James, C.M., Apirana, S. and Morgan, R.G. (2018). Rapid prototyping in instrumented hypervelocity testing. 18th Australian Space Research Conference, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia, 24-26 September 2018.

  • Geraets, Rowland T. Penty, McGilvray, Matthew, Doherty, Luke J., Morgan, Richard G., James, Christopher M., Vanyai, Tristan and Buttsworth, David R. (2017). Development of a fast-response calorimeter gauge for hypersonic ground testing. AIAA Aerodynamic Measurement Technology and Ground Testing Conference, Denver, CO, United States, 5-9 June 2017. Reston, VA, United States: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautic. doi: 10.2514/6.2017-3238

  • Geraets, Rowland T. Penty, McGilvray, Matthew, Doherty, Luke J., Morgan, Richard G., James, Christopher M., Vanyai, Tristan and Buttsworth, David R. (2017). Development of a fast-response calorimeter heat transfer gauge for hypersonic ground testing. 33rd AIAA Aerodynamic Measurement Technology and Ground Testing Conference, Denver, Colorado, 5-9 June 2017. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, AIAA.

  • James, Christopher M., Gildfind, David E., Morgan, Richard G., Lewis, Steven W. and McIntyre, Timothy J. (2017). Experimentally simulating gas giant entry in an expansion tube. 21st International Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference, Xiamen, China, 6 - 9 March 2017. Reston, VA, United States: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. doi: 10.2514/6.2017-2152

  • Ravichandran, R., Lewis, S.W., James, C.M., Morgan, R.G. and McIntyre, T.J. (2017). Interaction of ablating carbon with expanding earth entry flows in the X2 expansion tube. 9th Ablation Workshop, Bozeman, MT, United States, 30-31 August 2017.

  • James, C. M., Gildfind, D. E., Morgan, R. G., Lewis, S. W. and McIntyre, T. M. (2017). Simulating gas giant entry with increased helium diluent in an expansion tube. 30th International Symposium on Shock Waves, Tel Aviv, Israel, 19-24 July 2015. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-44866-4_104

  • McGilvray, Matthew , Pearce, William and James, Christopher (2016). Non-Helium Secondary Driver. 7th International Workshop on Radiation of High Temperature Gases in Atmospheric Entry, Stuttgart, Germany, 21-26 November 2016.

  • Morgan, R., Rees, B., Rutherford, J., Jefferey, M., Sollart, M., Morris, N., Basore, K., James, C., Wei, H., Gu, S., Lewis, S. and Landsberg, W. (2015). Advanced hypersonic vehicle component testing using pre-heated models and infrared scanning. 7th Asia-Pacific International Symposium on Aerospace Technology (APISAT), Cairns, QLD, Australia., 25-27 November, 2015.

  • James, C. M., Gildfind, D. E., Morgan, R. G., Lewis, S. W., Fahy, E. J. and McIntyre, T.J. (2015). Limits of Simulating Gas Giant Entry at True Gas Composition and True Flight Velocities in an Expansion Tube. 8th European Symposium on Aerothermodynamics for Space Vehicles, Lisbon, Portugal, 2-6 March 2015.

  • James, Christopher M., Gildfind, David E., Morgan, Richard G., Lewis, Steven W., Fahy, Elise J. and McIntyre, Timothy J. (2015). On the current limits of simulating gas giant entry flows in an expansion tube. AIAA International Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference, Glasgow, Scotland, 6 - 9 July 2015. Reston, VA, United States: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. doi: 10.2514/6.2015-3501

  • James, C., Gildfind, D., Morgan, R, Lewis, S., Fahy, E. and McIntyre, T. (2015). Simulating gas giant entry in an expansion tube. 7th Asia-Pacific International Symposium on Aerospace Technology, Cairns, Australia, 25-27 November 2015.

  • James, C .M., Gildfind, D. E., Morgan, R. G. and McIntyre, T. J. (2015). Working towards simulating gas giant entry radiation in an expansion tube. International Symposium on Shock Waves, Madison, WI, United States, 14-19 July 2013. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-16835-7_89

  • Parekh, Viha, Gildfind, David, Lewis, Steven and James, Christopher (2015). X3 expansion tube driver gas spectroscopy and temperature measurements. AIAA Australian-Asia Regional Student Conference, Canberra, ACT, Australia, 23-24 November, 2015. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

  • James, C. M., Gildfind, D. E., Morgan, R. G., Lewis, S. W., Fahy, E. J. and McIntyre, T. J. (2014). On the limits of simulating gas giant entry at true gas composition and true flight velocities in an expansion tube. 6th International Workshop on Radiation of High Temperature Gases in Atmospheric Entry, St Andrews, United Kingdom, 24-28 November 2014.

  • Gildfind, D. E., James, C. M. and Morgan, R. G. (2014). Performance considerations for expansion tube operation with a shock-heated secondary driver. 19th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, Melbourne, VIC, Australia, 8-11 December 2014. Melbourne, VIC, Australia: RMIT University.

  • James, Christopher, Gildfind, David, Morgan, Richard and McIntyre, Tim (2014). The limits of simulating gas giant entry at true gas composition and true flight velocities in an expansion tube. 19th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, Melbourne, VIC, Australia, 8-11 December 2014. Melbourne, VIC, Australia: RMIT University.

  • James, Chris, Gildfind, David, Morgan, Richard G., Jacobs, Peter A. and Zander, Fabian (2013). Designing and simulating high enthalpy expansion tube conditions. APISAT 2013: 2013 Asia-Pacific International Symposium on Aerospace Technology, Takamatsu, Japan, 20-22 November 2013. Takamatsu, Japan: Japan Society for Aeronautical and Space Sciences.

  • James, Christopher M., Gildfind, David E., Morgan, Richard G. and McIntyre, Timothy J. (2013). Theoretical validation of a test gas substitution for expansion tube simulation of gas giant entry. 44th AIAA Thermophysics Conference, San Diego, United States, 24-27 June 2013. Red Hook, NY, USA: Curran Associates. doi: 10.2514/6.2013-2506

  • James, C. M. and Morgan, R. M. (2012). Radiation from simulated atmospheric entry into the gas giants. 18th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference (AFMC), Launceston, Australia, 3-7 December 2012. Hawthorn, VIC, Australia: Australasian Fluid Mechanics Society.

Grants (Administered at UQ)

PhD and MPhil Supervision

Current Supervision

  • Doctor Philosophy — Principal Advisor

    Other advisors:

  • Doctor Philosophy — Principal Advisor

  • Doctor Philosophy — Principal Advisor

    Other advisors:

Possible Research Projects

Note for students: The possible research projects listed on this page may not be comprehensive or up to date. Always feel free to contact the staff for more information, and also with your own research ideas.

  • Opportunities always exist for the study of planetary entry in our impulse wind tunnel facilities, either with or without ablation and radiation. These opportunities relate to the particular planetary entry issues which are popular at the time. Currently, these include high speed Earth re-entry which is important for return from Mars in the future, giant planet entry for a planned Uranus or Neptune entry mission, Mars entry at large scale, and Titan entry for an upcoming NASA mission. The phenomena which is studied depends on the particular physical phenomena which is uncertain for the particular scenario. For high speed Earth re-entry, this is the interaction of radiation and ablation, for giant planet entry it is the study of the largely non-equilibrium post-shock flow, for Mars entry it is radiation at low temperatures as seen on the backshell of the vehicle or later in the trajectory, as well as turbulent heating due to the large vehicle sizes, for example. Students with an interest in these topics should contact Dr James directly at c.james4@uq.edu.au for details of specific projects.