Terahertz Spectroscopy of Mass-Manufactured Viral Vaccines (2007–2009)
Terahertz (THz) radiation measures protein characteristics invisible to other analyticals, specifically low-frequency motion that changes when proteins assemble into higher-order structures such as particles. Recent breakthrough vaccines (e.g. for cervical cancer) are made by assembling proteins into particles; efficient manufacturing methods for this new product class are urgently required. However, innovation is difficult because small process changes can cause unacceptable and undetectable product variation. This project will utilise THz spectroscopy for the first time to probe the motion of proteins in particles. The result will be new THz knowledge and new analysis methods, opening the way to pharmaceutical process innovation.