Associate Professor Rain Liivoja

Associate Professor

School of Law
Faculty of Business, Economics and Law
+61 7 336 58830


Rain Liivoja is an Associate Professor at the TC Beirne School of Law, The University of Queensland. He also holds the title of Adjunct Professor of International Law at the University of Helsinki, where he is affiliated with the Erik Castrén Institute of International Law and Human Rights.

Rain's current research focuses on the legal and ethical challenges associated with the military applications of science and technology generally and biosciences specifically. His broader research and teaching interest include the law of armed conflict, human rights law and the law of treaties, as well as international and comparative criminal law. Rain serves as Treasurer of the Australian and New Zealand Society of International Law and as a member of the Board of Directors of the International Society for Military Law and the Law of War. He is a Co-Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies.

Before joining the University of Queensland, Rain held academic appointments at the Universities of Melbourne, Helsinki and Tartu. He has been a visiting scholar at Georgetown University and the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence, and a visiting lecturer at the Estonian National Defence College and the Riga Graduate School of Law. Rain holds an undergraduate degree in law from the University of Tartu, and a masters and a doctorate in public international law from the University of Helsinki. He completed a Graduate Certificate in University Teaching at the University of Melbourne.


  • Doctor of Laws, University of Helsinki


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Book Chapter

  • Liivoja, Rain, Leins, Kobi and McCormack, Tim (2016). Emerging technologies of warfare. In Rain Liivoja and Tim McCormack (Ed.), Routledge handbook of the law of armed conflict (pp. 603-622) Abingdon: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9780203798362.ch35

  • Amstel, Nelleke van and Liivoja, Rain (2016). Private military and security companies. In Liivoja, Rain and McCormack, Tim (Ed.), Routledge handbook of the law of armed conflict (pp. 623-639) Abingdon, Oxon, United Kingdom: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9780203798362.ch36

  • Liivoja, Rain (2016). Trying Civilian Contractors in Military Courts: A Necessary Evil?. In Duxbury, Alison and Groves, Matthew (Ed.), Military Justice in The Modern Age (pp. 81-105) Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/cbo9781107326330.006

  • Liivoja, Rain (2014). Military justice. In Markus D. Dubber and Tatjana Hörnle (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of criminal law (pp. 326-349) Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199673599.013.0015

  • Liivoja, Rain (2013). Competing histories: Soviet war crimes in the Baltic States. In Kevin Heller and Gerry Simpson (Ed.), The hidden histories of war crimes trials (pp. 248-266) Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199671144.003.0012

  • Liivoja, Rain (2013). Law and honor: normative pluralism in the regulation of military conduct. In Jan Klabbers and Touko Piiparinen (Ed.), Normative pluralism and international law: exploring global governance (pp. 143-165) New York, United States: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9781139567121.009

  • Liivoja, Rain (2013). Treaties, Custom and Universal Jurisdiction. In Liivoja, Rain and Petman, Jarna (Ed.), International Law-making: Essays in Honour of Jan Klabbers (pp. 298-312) Abingdon, United Kingdom: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9780203074879

  • McCormack, Tim and Liivoja, Rain (2012). Australia: regulating private military and security companies. In Christine Bakker and Mirko Sossai (Ed.), Multilevel regulation of military and security contractors: the interplay between international, European and domestic norms (pp. 507-526) Oxford: Hart Publishing. doi:10.5040/

  • Liivoja, Rain (2012). Chivalry without a horse: military honour and the modern law of armed conflict. In Rain Liivoja and Andres Saumets (Ed.), The law of armed conflict: historical and contemporary perspectives (pp. 75-100) Tartu: Tartu University Press.

  • Liivoja, Rain (2010). Correspondents' reports: Estonia. In M.N. Schmitt, Louise Arimatsu and Tim McCormack (Ed.), Yearbook of international humanitarian law: 2010 (pp. 478-490) The Hague, Netherlands: T.M.C. Asser Press.

  • Leino, Jani and Liivoja, Rain (2010). Correspondents' reports: Finland. In M.N. Schmitt, Louise Arimatsu and Tim McCormack (Ed.), Yearbook of international humanitarian law: 2010 (pp. 480-485) The Hague, Netherlands: T.M.C. Asser Press.

  • Liivoja, Rain and Miluna, Ieva (2010). Correspondents' reports: Latvia. In M.N. Schmitt, Louise Arimatsu and Tim McCormack (Ed.), Yearbook of international humanitarian law: 2010 (pp. 571-581) The Hague, Netherlands: T.M.C. Asser Press.

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