Professor Hubert Chanson

Professor

School of Civil Engineering
Faculty of Engineering, Architecture and Information Technology
h.chanson@uq.edu.au
+61 7 336 53516

Overview

Hubert Chanson is Professor of Civil Engineering at the University of Queensland, where he has been since 1990, having previously enjoyed an industrial career for six years. His main field of expertise is environmental fluid mechanics and hydraulic engineering, both in terms of theoretical fundamentals, physical and numerical modelling. He leads a group of 5-10 researchers, largely targeting flows around hydraulic structures, two-phase (gas-liquid and solid-liquid) free-surface flows, turbulence in steady and unsteady open channel flows, using computation, lab-scale experiments, field work and analysis. He has published over 1,250 peer reviewed publications including two dozen of books. He serves on the editorial boards of International Journal of Multiphase Flow, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, and Environmental Fluid Mechanics, the latter of which he is currently a senior Editor. He chaired the Organisation of the 34th IAHR World Congress in June 2011 and of the 22nd Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference in December 2020, both held in Brisbane, Australia.

Research Interests

  • Industrial Two-Phase Flows
    In high-velocity turbulent flows, air bubbles are entrained at the free surface. This process (self-aeration) is caused by the turbulent velocity fluctuations acting next to the free surfaces. The presence of air within the flow increases the bulk of the flow, modifies the momentum shear layers and enhances the air-water gas transfer. The project is based upon new experimental investigations using large-scale experiments. The results enable a better understanding of the fluid mechanics of free-surface air-water flows.
  • Estuarine processes
    Investigation of the hydrodynamics and turbulent mixing in estuarine zones, under micro- and macro-tidal conditions. Field works. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Physical modelling.
  • Mixing and dispersion in rivers and estuaries
    Turbulent mixing in small estuaries with application to water quality modeling
  • Engineering heritage
    History of technology. Historical development of hydraulic engineering and structures, includings dams, spillways, weirs, culverts ...
  • Non-Newtonian fluid dynamics
    Experimental and theoretical study of non-Newtonian fluid flows, including thixotropic fluid flows, dam break, debris flows.
  • Open Channel Flow and Hydraulic Engineering
    Open channel flows are encountered in a wide range of applications from large rivers to roof gutters including irrigation channels. New research investigations include the hydraulic jump flows, undular flows, weir overflow, stepped cascades and supercritical flows. Applications to hydraulic structures cover high-head spillways, stepped chutes, rubber dams, stilling basins and water quality prediction.
  • Hydraulic structures
    Design and operation of spillway systems, incl. high head structures, large dams and overflow sections.
  • Air entrainment in hydraulic structures and industrial applications
    Study of air entrainment and air-water flows in hydraulics structures, hydraulic systems, re-aeration plants and water treatment systems.
  • Tidal bores
    A tidal bore is a surge of water propagating upstream in an estuarine zone when the tidal flow turns to rising and rushes into a funnel shaped river mouth with shallow waters. The bore forms typically during the early flood tide when the tidal range exceeds 4-6 m and the estuary bathymetry amplifies the tidal range with a low freshwater level. Worldwide it is believed that over 450 estuaries are affected by a tidal bore, on all continents except Antarctica. The interactions between tidal bores and mankind are complex. Tidal bores can be dangerous, impacting adversely on man-made structures and endangering lives. They can be also a major touristic and sport attraction. The aim of this research is to characterise the turbulent properties of bore fronts including the coupling between free-surface and velocity fluctuations, and impacts on sedimentary processes and ecology.

Research Impacts

Hubert Chanson's publication record includes over 1250 international refereed papers and his work was cited over 6,500 times (WoS) to 22,500 times (Google Scholar) since 1990. His h-index is 43 (WoS), 47 (Scopus) and 75 (Google Scholar). Hubert Chanson has been active also as consultant for both governmental agencies and private organisations, and he delivered numerous invited keynotes worldwide. He chaired the Organisation of the 34th IAHR World Congress in Brisbane, Australia in June 2011 which attracted over 850 participants from more than 45 countries, and the Organisation of the 22nd Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference in Brisbane, Australia in December 2020 which attracted over 250 participants, despite the COVID-19 pandemic.

His Internet home page is {http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans}. He also developed a gallery of photographs website {http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/photo.html} that received more than 2,000 hits per months since inception. His open access publication webpage is the most downloaded publication record at the University of Queensland: {http://espace.library.uq.edu.au/list.php?browse=author&author_id=193}.

Qualifications

  • DipIngGA, INSTN
  • DipIng, Grenoble
  • MEng, Grenoble
  • PhD, University of Canterbury
  • Doctor of Engineering, The University of Queensland

Publications

View all Publications

Supervision

View all Supervision

Available Projects

  • In recent years, the design floods of a number of dams were re-evaluated and the revised flows were often larger than those used for the original designs. In many cases, occurrence of the revised design floods would result in dam overtopping because of the insufficient storage and spillway capacity of the existing reservoir. A number of overtopping protection systems were developed for embankments and earthfill dams. These include concrete overtopping protection systems, timber cribs, sheet-piles, riprap and gabions, reinforced earth, Minimum Energy Loss weirs, and the precast concrete block protection systems developed by the Russian engineers (http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/over_st.html). Recent studies demonstrated a strong correlation between air entrainment, stepped chute hydrodynamics and turbulence. The findings imply that the rate of energy dissipation on stepped spillways might be drastically affected by the interactions between entrained air and flow turbulence.

  • When a river mouth has a flat, converging shape and when the tidal range exceeds 6 to 9 m, the river may experience a tidal bore (http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/tid_bore.html). A tidal bore is basically a series of waves propagating upstream as the tidal flow turns to rising. It is a positive surge. As the surge progresses inland, the river flow is reversed behind it. The best historically documented tidal bores are probably those of the Seine river (France) and Qiantang river (China). The mascaret of the Seine river was documented first during the 7th and 9th centuries AD, and in writings from the 11th to 16th centuries (http://www.uq.edu.au/%7Ee2hchans/mascaret.html). It was locally known as "la Barre". The Qiantang river bore, also called Hangzhou bore, was early mentioned during the 7th and 2nd centuries BC, and it was described in 8th century writings. The bore was then known as "The Old Faithful" because it kept time better than clocks. A tidal bore on the Indus river might have wiped out the fleet of Alexander the Great. Another famous tidal bore is the "pororoca" of the Amazon river observed by Pinzon and La Condamine in the 16th and 18th centuries respectively. The Hoogly (or Hooghly) bore on the Gange was documented in 19th century shipping reports. Smaller tidal bores occur on the Severn river near Gloucester, England, on the Garonne and Dordogne rivers, France, at Turnagain Arm and Knik Arm, Cook Inlet (Alaska), in the Bay of Fundy (at Petitcodiac and Truro), on the Styx and Daly rivers (Australia), and at Batang Lupar (Malaysia). In the present study, physical modelling will be used to reprodduced full-scale observations and to gain new insights in the unsteady hydrodynaics. The results will provide some new understanding of mixing processes in tidal-bore-affected estuaries.

  • In water supply channels, the brusque operation of control gates may induce large unsteady flow motion called surges. Such a rapid operation of gates must often be restricted, although it may be conducted to scour silted channels and sewers. Herein a physical study will be conducted under controlled flow conditions to study the turbulent mixing in the very-close vicinity of a rapidly opening/closing gate, with a focus on the unsteady transient mixing induced by the gate operation. The processes are associated with large Reynolds stress levels. A succession of rapid closure and opening of undershoot gates may provide optimum conditions to scour silted canals, and the present study will provide some detailed insights into the physical processes.

View all Available Projects

Publications

Featured Publications

Book

Book Chapter

  • Chanson, Hubert and Felder, Stefan (2017). Hydraulics of selected hydraulics structures. Open channel hydraulics, river hydraulic structures and fluvial geomorphology: for engineers, geomorphologists and physical geographers. (pp. 25-46) edited by Artur Radecki-Pawlik, Stefano Pagliara and Jan Hradecky. Boca Raton, FL, United States: CRC Press (Taylor and Francis Group). doi: 10.1201/9781315120584-3

  • Chanson, Hubert (2015). Energy dissipation: concluding remarks. Energy Dissipation in Hydraulic Structures. (pp. 159-165) edited by Hubert Chanson. Boca Raton, FL United States: CRC Press.

  • Chanson, Hubert (2015). Energy dissipation: concluding remarks. Energy dissipation in hydraulic structures. (pp. 159-166) edited by Hubert Chanson. London, United Kingdom: CRC Press. doi: 10.1201/b18441

  • Chanson, Hubert and Carvalho, Rita (2015). Hydraulic jumps and stilling basins. Energy Dissipation in Hydraulic Structures. (pp. 65-104) edited by Hubert Chanson. Boca Raton, FL United States: CRC Press. doi: 10.1201/b18441

  • Chanson, Hubert (2015). Introduction: Energy dissipators in hydraulic structures. Energy dissipation in hydraulic structures. (pp. 1-10) edited by Hubert Chanson. London, United Kingdom: CRC Press. doi: 10.1201/b18441

  • Chanson, Hubert (2015). Introduction: energy dissipators in hydraulic structures. Energy Dissipation in Hydraulic Structures. (pp. 1-9) edited by Hubert Chanson. Boca Raton, FL United States: CRC Press.

  • Chanson, Hubert (2015). Preface. In Hubert Chanson (Ed.), Energy dissipation in hydraulic structures (pp. ix-x) Boca Raton, FL USA: CRC Press. doi:10.1201/b18441

  • Chanson, Hubert, Bung, Daniel and Matos, Jorge (2015). Stepped spillways and cascades. Energy Dissipation in Hydraulic Structures. (pp. 45-63) edited by Hubert Chanson. Boca Raton, FL, United States: CRC Press.

  • Chanson, Hubert, Gibbes, Badin and Brown, Richard J. (2014). Turbulent mixing and sediment processes in peri-urban estuaries in South-East Queensland (Australia). Estuaries of Australia in 2050 and beyond. (pp. 167-183) edited by Eric Wolanski. Dordrecht, Germany: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-7019-5_10

  • Chanson, Hubert (2013). Advective diffusion of air bubbles in turbulent water flows. Fluid mechanics of environmental interfaces. (pp. 181-219) edited by C. Gualtieri and D. T. Mihailovic. Leiden, The Netherlands: Taylor & Francis.

  • Chanson, H. (2013). Embankment dam spillways and energy dissipators. Labyrinth and piano key weirs II. (pp. 23-37) London, United Kingdom: CRC Press. doi: 10.1201/b15985

  • Chanson, Hubert (2013). Environmental fluid dynamics of tidal bores: theoretical considerations and field observations. Fluid mechanics of environmental interfaces. (pp. 295-321) edited by Carlo Gualtieri and Dragutin T. Mihailovíć.. Leiden, Netherlands: Taylor & Francis. doi: 10.1201/b13079-14

  • Chanson, Hubert and Lubin. Pierre (2013). Mixing and sediment processes induced by tsunamis propagating upriver. Tsunamis: Economic Impact, Disaster Management and Future Challenges. (pp. 65-102) edited by Tianxing Cai. Hauppauge, NY, USA: Nova Science Publishers.

  • Chanson, Hubert (2013). Tidal bores. Encyclopedia of natural hazards. (pp. 1007-1009) edited by Peter T. Bobrowsky. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4020-4399-4_50

  • Chanson, Hubert and James, D. Patrick (2012). Arch dams, development fron cut-stone arches to modern design. Encyclopedia of lakes and reservoirs: Geography, geology, hydrology and paleolimnology. (pp. 56-68) edited by Lars Bengtsson, Reginald W. Herschy and Rhodes W. Fairbridge. Dordrecht, Netherlands; London, United Kingdom: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4020-4410-6_45

  • Chanson, Hubert (2012). Reservoir sedimentation in Australia under extreme conditions. Encyclopedia of lakes and reservoirs: Geography, geology, hydrology and paleolimnology. (pp. 649-656) edited by Lars Bengtsson, Reginald W. Herschy and Rhodes W. Fairbridge. Dordrecht ; London: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4020-4410-6_193

  • Chanson, Hubert, Lubin, Pierre and Glockner, Stephane (2012). Unsteady turbulence in a shock: physical and numerical modelling in tidal bores and hydraulic jumps. Turbulence: theory, types and simulation. (pp. 113-148) edited by Russell J. Marcuso. Hauppauge NY, USA: Nova Science Publishers.

  • Chanson, Hubert (2010). Environmental, ecological and cultural impacts of tidal bores, burros and bonos. Environmental hydraulics: Theoretical, experimental and computational solutions: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Environmental Hydraulics, IWEH09. (pp. 3-9) edited by P.A. Lopez-Jimenez, V.S. Fuertes-Miquel, P.L. Iglesias-Rey, G. Lopez-Patino, F.J. Martinez-Soliano and G. Palau-Salivdor. Leiden, The Netherlands: CRC Press/Balkema.

  • Chanson, Hubert and Trevethan, Mark (2010). Turbulence, turbulent mixing and diffusion in shallow-water estuaries. Atmospheric turbulence, meteorological modeling and aerodynamics. (pp. 167-204) edited by P. R. Lang and F.S. Lombargo. Hauppauge, NY, U.S.A.: Nova Science Publishers.

  • Chanson, Hubert (2009). Embankment overtopping protections system and earth dam spillways. Dams: Impacts, Stability and Design. (pp. 101-132) edited by Walter P. Hayes and Michael C. Barnes. Hauppauge NY, USA: Nova Science Publishers.

  • Chanson, Hubert (2009). The Perspective of a Hydraulic Engineer. Foreword. Timber Structures in Rivers. State of the Art, Applications et Design. Technical Handbook.. (pp. 7-8) edited by Roman, Damien. Paris, France: Office National des Forêts, Direction du Développement.

  • Murzyn, Frederic and Chanson, Hubert (2009). Two-phase gas-liquid flow properties in the hydraulic jump: Review and perspectives. Multiphase flow research. (pp. 497-542) edited by S. Martin and J.R. Williams. New York, USA: Nova Science Publishers.

  • Chanson, Hubert (2008). Advective Diffusion of Air Bubbles in Turbulent Water Flows. Fluid Mechanics of Environmental Interfaces. (pp. 163-196) edited by Carlo Gualtieri and Dragutin T. Mihailovic. Leyden, The Netherlands: Taylor & Francis. doi: 10.4324/9780203895351-14

  • Chanson, Hubert (2004). Advective diffusion. Environmental Hydraulics of Open Channel Flows. (pp. 75-80) Oxford, United Kingdom: Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/b978-075066165-2.50038-2

  • Chanson, Hubert (2004). Air Entrainment in Hydraulic Engineering. Fluvial, Environmental & Coastal Developments in Hydraulic Engineering. (pp. 17-63) edited by Michele Mossa, Youichi Yasuda and Hubert Chanson. Leiden, The Netherlands: A.A. Balkema Publishers.

  • Chanson, H. (2004). Air entrainment in hydraulic engineering. Fluvial, environmental and coastal developments in hydraulic engineering. (pp. 17-64) edited by Michele Mossa, Youichi Yasuda and Hubert Chanson. Boca Raton, FL, United States: CRC Press. doi: 10.1201/9780203023396.ch3

  • Chanson, Hubert (2004). Diffusion: Basic Theory. Environmental Hydraulics of Open Channel Flows. (pp. 65-74) edited by Hubert Chanson. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann. doi: 10.1016/B978-075066165-2.50030-8

  • Chanson, H. (2004). Free-surface aeration in dam break waves: an experimental study. Hydraulics of Dams and River Structures. (pp. 25-32) edited by F Yazdandoost and J Attari. United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis.

  • Chanson, Hubert, Brown, Richard and Ferris, John (2004). Hydrodynamic and Ecological Study of a Sub-Tropical Estuary in Queensland. Fluvial, Environmental & Coastal Developments in Hydraulic Engineering. (pp. 133-149) edited by Mossa, Michele, Yasuda, Youichi and Chanson, Hubert. Leiden: Balkema.

  • Chanson, Hubert (2004). Introduction to Part 1: Basic Principles of Open Channel Flows. The Hydraulics of Open Channel Flow: An Introduction. (pp. 3-8) edited by Chanson, Hubert. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. doi: 10.1016/B978-075065978-9/50006-4

  • Chanson, Hubert (2004). Introduction to Part 1: Introduction to Open Channel Flows. Environmental Hydraulics of Open Channel Flows. (pp. 3-10) edited by Hubert Chanson. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann. doi: 10.1016/B978-075066165-2.50033-3

  • Chanson, Hubert (2004). Mixing and Dispersion Role of Tidal Bores. Fluvial, Environmental & Coastal Developments in Hydraulic Engineering. (pp. 223-232) edited by Michele Mossa, Youichi Yasuda and Hubert Chanson. Leiden, The Netherlands: A. A. Balkema Publishers.

  • Chanson, Hubert (2004). Mixing in estuaries. Environmental Hydraulics of Open Channel Flows. (pp. 144-176) Oxford, United Kingdom: Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/b978-075066165-2.50042-4

  • Chanson, H. and Gonzalez, C. A. (2004). Recent Advances in Stepped Spillway Design: Air-Water Flow on Stepped Chutes, Embankment Dam Stepped Spillway and Other Considerations. Fluvial, environmental and coastal developments in hydraulic engineering : proceedings of the International Workhop on State-of-the-art Hydraulic Engineering, 16-19 February 2004, Bari, Italy. (pp. 81-97) edited by Mossa, Michele, Yasuda, Youichi and Chanson, Hubert. London, England: Balkema; Taylor & Francis.

  • Chanson, Hubert (2004). Revision exercises. Environmental Hydraulics of Open Channel Flows. (pp. 177-182) Oxford, United Kingdom: Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/b978-075066165-2.50043-6

  • Chanson, Hubert (2004). Turbulent shear flows. Environmental hydraulics of open channel flows. (pp. 49-64) Oxford, United Kingdom: Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/b978-075066165-2.50036-9

  • Chanson, Hubert (2004). Unsteady open channel flows: 1. Basic equations. The Hydraulics of Open Channel Flow: an introduction. (pp. 290-317) edited by H. Chanson. Oxford, England: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.

  • Chanson, H. (2004). Unsteady open channel flows: 2. Applications. The Hydraulics of Open Channel Flow: An Introduction. (pp. 318-370) edited by Hubert Chanson. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

  • Chanson, Hubert (2002). Very Strong Free-Surface Aeration in Turbulent Flows : Entrainment Mechanisms and Air-Water Flow Structure at the "Pseudo" Free-Surface". Interaction of Strong Turbulence with Free Surfaces. (pp. 65-98) edited by M. Brocchini, D. H. Peregrine and Philip L-F Liu. Singapore: World Scientific.

  • Chanson, Hubert (1999). The Hydraulics of Open Channel Flow: An Introduction. Physical Modelling of Hydraulics. Hydraulics of Open Channel Flow: an Introduction. (pp. 261-283) edited by Chanson, Hubert. Butterworth-Heinemann.

  • Chanson, Hubert (1999). The Hydraulics of Open Channel Flow: an Introduction. Sediment Transport Mechanisms 1. Bed-load Transport. The Hydraulics of Open Channel Flow: an Introduction. (pp. 195-209) edited by Chanson, Hubert. Butterworth-Heinemann.

Journal Article

Conference Publication

Edited Outputs

Other Outputs

Grants (Administered at UQ)

PhD and MPhil Supervision

Current Supervision

  • Doctor Philosophy — Principal Advisor

  • Doctor Philosophy — Principal Advisor

  • Doctor Philosophy — Associate Advisor

    Other advisors:

  • Doctor Philosophy — Associate Advisor

    Other advisors:

Completed Supervision

Possible Research Projects

Note for students: The possible research projects listed on this page may not be comprehensive or up to date. Always feel free to contact the staff for more information, and also with your own research ideas.

  • In recent years, the design floods of a number of dams were re-evaluated and the revised flows were often larger than those used for the original designs. In many cases, occurrence of the revised design floods would result in dam overtopping because of the insufficient storage and spillway capacity of the existing reservoir. A number of overtopping protection systems were developed for embankments and earthfill dams. These include concrete overtopping protection systems, timber cribs, sheet-piles, riprap and gabions, reinforced earth, Minimum Energy Loss weirs, and the precast concrete block protection systems developed by the Russian engineers (http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/over_st.html). Recent studies demonstrated a strong correlation between air entrainment, stepped chute hydrodynamics and turbulence. The findings imply that the rate of energy dissipation on stepped spillways might be drastically affected by the interactions between entrained air and flow turbulence.

  • When a river mouth has a flat, converging shape and when the tidal range exceeds 6 to 9 m, the river may experience a tidal bore (http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/tid_bore.html). A tidal bore is basically a series of waves propagating upstream as the tidal flow turns to rising. It is a positive surge. As the surge progresses inland, the river flow is reversed behind it. The best historically documented tidal bores are probably those of the Seine river (France) and Qiantang river (China). The mascaret of the Seine river was documented first during the 7th and 9th centuries AD, and in writings from the 11th to 16th centuries (http://www.uq.edu.au/%7Ee2hchans/mascaret.html). It was locally known as "la Barre". The Qiantang river bore, also called Hangzhou bore, was early mentioned during the 7th and 2nd centuries BC, and it was described in 8th century writings. The bore was then known as "The Old Faithful" because it kept time better than clocks. A tidal bore on the Indus river might have wiped out the fleet of Alexander the Great. Another famous tidal bore is the "pororoca" of the Amazon river observed by Pinzon and La Condamine in the 16th and 18th centuries respectively. The Hoogly (or Hooghly) bore on the Gange was documented in 19th century shipping reports. Smaller tidal bores occur on the Severn river near Gloucester, England, on the Garonne and Dordogne rivers, France, at Turnagain Arm and Knik Arm, Cook Inlet (Alaska), in the Bay of Fundy (at Petitcodiac and Truro), on the Styx and Daly rivers (Australia), and at Batang Lupar (Malaysia). In the present study, physical modelling will be used to reprodduced full-scale observations and to gain new insights in the unsteady hydrodynaics. The results will provide some new understanding of mixing processes in tidal-bore-affected estuaries.

  • In water supply channels, the brusque operation of control gates may induce large unsteady flow motion called surges. Such a rapid operation of gates must often be restricted, although it may be conducted to scour silted channels and sewers. Herein a physical study will be conducted under controlled flow conditions to study the turbulent mixing in the very-close vicinity of a rapidly opening/closing gate, with a focus on the unsteady transient mixing induced by the gate operation. The processes are associated with large Reynolds stress levels. A succession of rapid closure and opening of undershoot gates may provide optimum conditions to scour silted canals, and the present study will provide some detailed insights into the physical processes.

  • Man-made instream structures (e.g. dams and road crossings) have contributed to major declines in native fish numbers, with > 6,000 barriers to fish migration occurring in NSW alone. Recognising this, this project will integrate data on the swimming ability of Australian fish species with culvert hydraulic modelling to better understand fish requirements in and around road crossings. These data will strengthen national design guidelines and provide the tools engineers and planners need to balance fish migration with effective water management.

    This project will provide data on the ability of Australian fish to successfully ascend through road crossings (culverts). These data will be used to develop National recommendations for ‘fish-friendly’ road crossing designs which better integrate the requirements of native fish with the need for cost-effective water management around roads.

  • In an open channel, the transformation from a supercritical flow into a subcritical flow is a rapidly varied flow with large turbulent fluctuations, intense air entrainment, and substantial energy dissipation called a hydraulic jump. New experiments will be conducted to quantify its fluctuating characteristics in terms of free-surface and two-phase flow properties for a wide range of Froude numbers at relatively large Reynolds numbers. Although te time-averaged free-surface profile presents a self-similar profile, the longitudinal movements of the jump will be documented, for both fast and very slow fluctuations for all Froude numbers. The air–water flow measurements will quantify the intense aeration of the roller and the strong interactions between the jump roller turbulence and free-surface fluctuations.

  • In recent years, the design floods of a number of dams were re-evaluated and the revised flows were often larger than those used for the original designs. In many cases, occurrence of the revised design floods would result in dam overtopping because of the insufficient storage and spillway capacity of the existing reservoir. A number of overtopping protection systems were developed for embankments and earthfill dams. These include concrete overtopping protection systems , timber cribs, sheet-piles, riprap and gabions, reinforced earth, Minimum Energy Loss weirs, and the precast concrete block protection systems developed by the Russian engineers. New physical tests will be a conducted ina a large-size facility to optiise present design guidelines.

  • Plunging jet flows are employed to produce some gas-liquid interface, typically to dissolve gas in liquid. They are bottlenecks in minerals and food processing, biotechnology and waste-water treatment. The mechanisms of air bubble entrainment by circular plunging jets will be investigated in the light of new experimental evidence. The results will be obtained in the developing flow region. While void fraction distributions follow closely an advective diffusion theory, the bubble count rate distribution exhibit consistently a maximum in the inner side of the void fraction peak indicating some bubble-turbulence coupling. Both intrusice phase-detection probe measurements and high-speed video imaging of the bubbly flow will be conducted with void fractions up to 40%.

  • When a river mouth has a flat, converging shape and when the tidal range exceeds 6 to 9 m, the river may experience a tidal bore {http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/tid_bore.html}. A tidal bore is basically a series of waves propagating upstream as the tidal flow turns to rising. It is a positive surge. As the surge progresses inland, the river flow is reversed behind it. New research into the unsteady hydrodynamics of tidal bores and postive surges will be investigated ina large-size physical model. This study aims to characterise the impact of tidal bores on the turbulent dispersion of fish eggs and on water quality.

  • Flood waves resulting from dam breaks and flash floods have been responsible for numerous losses. In the present study, sudden flood releases were investigated down a initially dry waterway, while additional tests may be conducted on an initially filled waterway. oth Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid flows may be considered.

  • Dispersion of matter in natural river systems is of considerable importance, particularly in relation to the transport of nutrients, sediment and toxicants into ecosystems as a result of stormwater runoff and wastewater discharges. The project aims to improve our basic understanding of turbulent mixing and the influence of anthropogenic releases in small subtropical estuaries, and to develop improved predictive models to assist with the management and monitoring of natural ecosystems. This will be achieved through a Ph.D. research project integrating basic water engineering and environmental sciences. The project is part of an active cross-institutional multidisciplinary research effort.