Dr Carlos Salomon Gallo

Senior Research Fellow

UQ Centre for Clinical Research
Faculty of Medicine
c.salomongallo@uq.edu.au
+61 7 334 65418

Overview

I am a group leader and senior Lions Medical Research Foundation (LMRF) Fellow working at the University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research (UQCCR). Prior to joining UQCCR, I completed my Bachelor Degree in Biochemistry and a Masters degree in Clinical Biochemistry and Immunology at Universidad de Concepcion (Chile) and a PhD in Medical Science at Pontifical Catholic University of Chile. I have been author of more than 50 journal publications during the period 2011-2016, many of which appear in high-ranking journals in the field (e.g. Diabetes, JCEM, Placenta and FASEB). I am recognized as a national and international researcher working in the field of extracellular vesicles focusing on the reproductive biology (specifically in pregnancy and its complications) and I have been consistently invited as a speaker to both National and International meetings (e.g. Australasia Extracellular Vesicles Society 2014 and International Society for Prenatal Diagnosis 2014). Within UQCCR, I have established and lead the EXOSOME BIOLOGY LABOARTORY that conforms the ISO standards (ISO17025 and 13485), in which human exosomes can be isolated, characterised and their role elucidated to evaluate their clinical utility as biomarkers of disease and therapeutic interventions.

Research Interests

  • Exosomes
    Exosomes are small (40-100 nm) membrane vesicles that are released following the exocytotic fusion of multi-vesicular bodies with the cell membrane. Exosomes have been identified in plasma under both normal and pathological conditions. The concentration of exosomal protein in plasma has been reported to increase in association with disease severity and/or progression, and in response to oxidative stress. Exosomes have been reported to express a diverse range of cell surface receptors, proteins (including, heat shock proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, adhesion molecules, membrane transport and fusion proteins), mRNA and miRNA with the potential to affect the acute and long-term function of the cells with which they interact. Recent studies highlight the putative utility of tissue-specific nanovesicles (e.g. exosomes) in the diagnosis of disease onset and treatment monitoring. To date there is a paucity of data defining changes in the release, role and diagnostic utility of exosomes in many diseases (e.g. cancer and complication of pregnancy).

Research Impacts

I am recognized as a national and international researcher working in the field of extracellular vesicles focused on reproductive biology (in particular, pregnancy and its complications) and I have been regularly invited to speak at National and International meetings, e.g., Australasia Extracellular Vesicles Society, Society of Reproductive Investigation (SRI) and International Society for Prenatal Diagnosis. Within UQ Centre for Clinical Research (Brisbane, Australia), I have established and lead the Exosome Biology Laboratory. My research team includes Ph.D. students (3), Honours students (3), MPhil students (2), research staff (2 RAs) and clinical collaboration (3 MDs lead by A/Professor Greg Duncombe a materno-fetal medicine specialist). During my career, I have been successful in translational research; for example, I established the mechanism of vascular dysfunction in the foetoplacental circulation in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and the role of the insulin receptor isoform in this phenomenon. These results were the baseline to identify whether known vasoactive molecules (such as adenosine) whose plasma levels are elevated in the fetal blood in GDM pregnancies, play a functional role in the altered vascular reactivity and endothelial dysfunction in women who develop GDM. In the last 4 years, I have made several contributions to our understanding the role of placental exosomes during gestation, and my work demonstrated their nature as specific subcellular compartments and their ability to modify the biological function of target cells (maternal and/or fetal cells). I have been working on the identification and validation of maternal plasma exosomal biomarkers during early pregnancy in normal and complicated pregnancies to developing and evaluating a multiple biomarker classification model.

Qualifications

  • Bachelor of Biochemistry, Universidad de Concepcion
  • Master of Clinical Biochemistry and Inmunology, UC
  • Doctor in Medical Sciences, Uchile(CL)

Publications

View all Publications

Supervision

  • Doctor Philosophy

  • Doctor Philosophy

  • Doctor Philosophy

View all Supervision

Available Projects

  • Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) affects ~5% of all pregnancies and parallels the global increase in obesity and type 2 diabetes. In the USA alone, GDM affects more than 135,000 pregnancies per year. Lifestyle changes that impact adversely on caloric balance are thought to be a contributing factor in this emerging pandemic (Ferrara, Kahn et al. 2004; Robitaille and Grant 2008). The current ‘gold standard’ for the diagnosis of GDM is the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 24–28 weeks of gestation (Salomon, Westermeier et al. 2012). When GDM is diagnosed in the late second or early third trimester of pregnancy the ‘pathology’ is most likely well-established and the possibility to reverse or limit potential adverse effect on perinatal outcomes may be limited (Agarwal, Weigl et al. 2011). Early detection of predisposition to and/or onset of GDM, thus, is the first step in developing, evaluating and implementing efficacious treatment. If such early detection tests were available, they would represent a major advance and contribution to the discipline and afford the opportunity to evaluate alternate treatment and clinical management strategies to improve health outcomes for both mother and baby. Based upon recent technological developments and studies, we consider it realistic that a clinically useful antenatal screening test can be developed. Unlike diseases such as cancer where biomarkers need to be exquisitely specific, a useful antenatal screening test would ideally be highly sensitive, but not necessarily highly specific. The consequence of a false positive would be no worse than an erroneous triage to high-risk care.

    Recent studies highlight the putative utility of tissue-specific nanovesicles (e.g. exosomes) in the diagnosis of disease onset and treatment monitoring (Taylor and Gercel-Taylor 2005; Armitage, Poston et al. 2008; Simpson, Jensen et al. 2008; Atay, Gercel-Taylor et al. 2011; Atay, Gercel-Taylor et al. 2011; Chen, Ge et al. 2012). To date there is a paucity of data defining changes in the release, role and diagnostic utility of placenta-derived nanovesicles (e.g. exosomes) in pregnancies complicated by GDM.

View all Available Projects

Publications

Book Chapter

  • Sharma, Shayna, Alharbi, Mona, Lai, Andrew, Kobayashi, Miharu, Kline, Richard, Wade, Katrina, Rice, Gregory E. and Salomon, Carlos (2017). Cross‐talk between hypoxia and the tumour via exosomes. In Jing Zheng and Chi Zhou (Ed.), Hypoxia and human diseases (pp. 365-381) Rijeka, Croatia: Intech. doi:10.5772/65688

  • Salomon, Carlos, Sobrevia, Luis, Ashman, Keith, Illanes, Sebastian E., Mitchell, Murray D. and Rice, Gregory E. (2013). The role of placental exosomes in gestational diabetes mellitus. In Luis Sobrevia (Ed.), Gestational Diabetes: Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment (pp. 29-47) Rijeka, Croatia: InTech. doi:10.5772/55298

Journal Article

Conference Publication

Grants (Administered at UQ)

PhD and MPhil Supervision

Current Supervision

  • Doctor Philosophy — Principal Advisor

  • Doctor Philosophy — Principal Advisor

    Other advisors:

  • Doctor Philosophy — Principal Advisor

  • Doctor Philosophy — Principal Advisor

    Other advisors:

  • Doctor Philosophy — Principal Advisor

  • Doctor Philosophy — Associate Advisor

  • Doctor Philosophy — Associate Advisor

  • Doctor Philosophy — Associate Advisor

Possible Research Projects

Note for students: The possible research projects listed on this page may not be comprehensive or up to date. Always feel free to contact the staff for more information, and also with your own research ideas.

  • Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) affects ~5% of all pregnancies and parallels the global increase in obesity and type 2 diabetes. In the USA alone, GDM affects more than 135,000 pregnancies per year. Lifestyle changes that impact adversely on caloric balance are thought to be a contributing factor in this emerging pandemic (Ferrara, Kahn et al. 2004; Robitaille and Grant 2008). The current ‘gold standard’ for the diagnosis of GDM is the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 24–28 weeks of gestation (Salomon, Westermeier et al. 2012). When GDM is diagnosed in the late second or early third trimester of pregnancy the ‘pathology’ is most likely well-established and the possibility to reverse or limit potential adverse effect on perinatal outcomes may be limited (Agarwal, Weigl et al. 2011). Early detection of predisposition to and/or onset of GDM, thus, is the first step in developing, evaluating and implementing efficacious treatment. If such early detection tests were available, they would represent a major advance and contribution to the discipline and afford the opportunity to evaluate alternate treatment and clinical management strategies to improve health outcomes for both mother and baby. Based upon recent technological developments and studies, we consider it realistic that a clinically useful antenatal screening test can be developed. Unlike diseases such as cancer where biomarkers need to be exquisitely specific, a useful antenatal screening test would ideally be highly sensitive, but not necessarily highly specific. The consequence of a false positive would be no worse than an erroneous triage to high-risk care.

    Recent studies highlight the putative utility of tissue-specific nanovesicles (e.g. exosomes) in the diagnosis of disease onset and treatment monitoring (Taylor and Gercel-Taylor 2005; Armitage, Poston et al. 2008; Simpson, Jensen et al. 2008; Atay, Gercel-Taylor et al. 2011; Atay, Gercel-Taylor et al. 2011; Chen, Ge et al. 2012). To date there is a paucity of data defining changes in the release, role and diagnostic utility of placenta-derived nanovesicles (e.g. exosomes) in pregnancies complicated by GDM.